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Dietary compound score and risk of age-related macular degeneration in the age-related eye disease study.

Abstract

PURPOSE

Because foods provide many nutrients that may interact to modify risk for multifactorial diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we sought to develop a composite scoring system to summarize the combined effect of multiple dietary nutrients on AMD risk. This has not been done previously.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional study.

PARTICIPANTS

From the 4003 participants in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), there were 7,934 eyes included in this study.

METHODS

Considering dietary intakes of vitamins C and E, zinc, lutein/zeaxanthin, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and low-dietary glycemic index (dGI) from AREDS baseline information, we assigned each nutrient a percentile rank score then summed them into a compound score for each participant. Using eye as the unit of analysis, we evaluated the association between the compound score and risk of prevalent AMD. Validation, fitness, and performance of the model were evaluated using bootstrapping techniques, adjusted quasi-likelihood under the independence model criterion, and the c-index, respectively.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Stereoscopic fundus photographs of the macula were taken and graded at baseline using the AREDS protocol and AMD Classification System.

RESULTS

Our results showed that higher compound scores were associated with lower risk for early AMD, indicated by drusen, and advanced AMD. Validation analyses indicated that these relationships are robust (the average 50-time bootstrapping per quartile odds ratios = 0.727, 0.827, and 0.753, respectively, for drusen, and 0.616, 0.536, and 0.572, respectively, for advanced AMD). Model selection analyses suggested that the compound score should be included, but that measures of dietary beta-carotene should not be included.

CONCLUSIONS

We found that consuming diets that provide low dGI and higher intakes of these nutrients were associated with the greatest reduction in risk for prevalent drusen and advanced AMD, whereas dietary beta-carotene did not affect these relationships. These findings warrant further prospective studies.

FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S)

Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Jean Mayer United States Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Department of Ophthalmology School of Medicine, Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA. cj.chiu@tufts.edu

    , , ,

    Source

    Ophthalmology 116:5 2009 May pg 939-46

    MeSH

    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Ascorbic Acid
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Diet
    Diet Surveys
    Dietary Supplements
    Docosahexaenoic Acids
    Eicosapentaenoic Acid
    Energy Intake
    Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
    Feeding Behavior
    Female
    Glycemic Index
    Humans
    Lutein
    Macular Degeneration
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Retinal Drusen
    Risk Assessment
    Vitamin E
    Xanthophylls
    Zeaxanthins
    Zinc

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Validation Studies

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    19410952

    Citation

    Chiu, Chung-Jung, et al. "Dietary Compound Score and Risk of Age-related Macular Degeneration in the Age-related Eye Disease Study." Ophthalmology, vol. 116, no. 5, 2009, pp. 939-46.
    Chiu CJ, Milton RC, Klein R, et al. Dietary compound score and risk of age-related macular degeneration in the age-related eye disease study. Ophthalmology. 2009;116(5):939-46.
    Chiu, C. J., Milton, R. C., Klein, R., Gensler, G., & Taylor, A. (2009). Dietary compound score and risk of age-related macular degeneration in the age-related eye disease study. Ophthalmology, 116(5), pp. 939-46. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2008.12.025.
    Chiu CJ, et al. Dietary Compound Score and Risk of Age-related Macular Degeneration in the Age-related Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology. 2009;116(5):939-46. PubMed PMID: 19410952.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary compound score and risk of age-related macular degeneration in the age-related eye disease study. AU - Chiu,Chung-Jung, AU - Milton,Roy C, AU - Klein,Ronald, AU - Gensler,Gary, AU - Taylor,Allen, PY - 2008/04/03/received PY - 2008/12/06/revised PY - 2008/12/08/accepted PY - 2009/5/5/entrez PY - 2009/5/5/pubmed PY - 2009/5/15/medline SP - 939 EP - 46 JF - Ophthalmology JO - Ophthalmology VL - 116 IS - 5 N2 - PURPOSE: Because foods provide many nutrients that may interact to modify risk for multifactorial diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we sought to develop a composite scoring system to summarize the combined effect of multiple dietary nutrients on AMD risk. This has not been done previously. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: From the 4003 participants in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), there were 7,934 eyes included in this study. METHODS: Considering dietary intakes of vitamins C and E, zinc, lutein/zeaxanthin, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and low-dietary glycemic index (dGI) from AREDS baseline information, we assigned each nutrient a percentile rank score then summed them into a compound score for each participant. Using eye as the unit of analysis, we evaluated the association between the compound score and risk of prevalent AMD. Validation, fitness, and performance of the model were evaluated using bootstrapping techniques, adjusted quasi-likelihood under the independence model criterion, and the c-index, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stereoscopic fundus photographs of the macula were taken and graded at baseline using the AREDS protocol and AMD Classification System. RESULTS: Our results showed that higher compound scores were associated with lower risk for early AMD, indicated by drusen, and advanced AMD. Validation analyses indicated that these relationships are robust (the average 50-time bootstrapping per quartile odds ratios = 0.727, 0.827, and 0.753, respectively, for drusen, and 0.616, 0.536, and 0.572, respectively, for advanced AMD). Model selection analyses suggested that the compound score should be included, but that measures of dietary beta-carotene should not be included. CONCLUSIONS: We found that consuming diets that provide low dGI and higher intakes of these nutrients were associated with the greatest reduction in risk for prevalent drusen and advanced AMD, whereas dietary beta-carotene did not affect these relationships. These findings warrant further prospective studies. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. SN - 1549-4713 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19410952/Dietary_compound_score_and_risk_of_age_related_macular_degeneration_in_the_age_related_eye_disease_study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0161-6420(08)01294-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -