The fundal pile: bleeding gastric varices.J Pediatr Surg. 1991 Jun; 26(6):707-9.JP
Bleeding from esophageal varices is a common cause of major upper gastrointestinal tract blood loss in children with portal hypertension but usually ceases spontaneously or is satisfactorily managed by nonoperative measures. Massive hemorrhage from gastric fundal varices may be difficult to control with compression and sclerotherapy; in these cases, a direct surgical approach may be indicated. Since 1984, 27 children have undergone aggressive injection sclerotherapy for bleeding esophageal/gastric varices. Nine (6 with portal vein thrombosis) bled from gastric fundal varices. In 5 of these, medical management and sclerotherapy failed to control the acute bleed. In all 5 there was "rupture" of a large gastric fundal varix or "pile" and bleeding was controlled at emergency laparotomy by underrunning the varices through a high anterior gastrotomy. Four have subsequently been successfully managed by continued sclerotherapy and one patient with cirrhosis has died of liver failure. In 3 of the survivors both esophageal and gastric fundal varices have been completely obliterated. No further life-threatening hemorrhage has occurred in any case during a follow-up period of 1 to 5 years. Bleeding from gastric varices is more common than previously recorded and more difficult to control by nonoperative management, including injection sclerotherapy. In uncontrolled hemorrhage from gastric varices, surgical underrunning offers a means of providing initial control. Thereafter, the inevitable variceal recurrence may be successfully treated with sclerotherapy.