Depressive symptom dimensions and cardiovascular prognosis among women with suspected myocardial ischemia: A report from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation.Arch Gen Psychiatry 2009; 66(5):499-507AG
Symptoms of depression and cardiovascular disease (CVD) overlap substantially. Differentiating between dimensions of depressive symptoms may improve our understanding of the relationship between depression and physical health.
To compare symptom dimensions of depression as predictors of cardiovascular-related death and events among women with suspected myocardial ischemia.
Cohort study of women with suspected myocardial ischemia who underwent evaluation at baseline for a history of cardiovascular-related problems, depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory, and coronary artery disease severity via coronary angiography. Principal components analyses (PCAs) of the Beck Depression Inventory items were conducted to examine differential cardiovascular prognosis according to symptom dimensions of depression.
The Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE), a multicenter study sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to assess cardiovascular function using state-of-the-art techniques in women referred for coronary angiography to evaluate chest pain or suspected myocardial ischemia.
Five hundred fifty women (mean [SD] age, 58.4 [11.2] years) enrolled in the WISE study and followed up for a median of 5.8 years.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Cardiovascular-related mortality and events (stroke, myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure).
When a 3-factor structure from PCA was used, somatic/affective (hazards ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.74) and appetitive (1.42; 1.21-1.68) but not cognitive/affective (0.89; 0.70-1.14) symptoms predicted cardiovascular prognosis in adjusted multivariate Cox regression analysis. When a 2-factor structure from PCA was used, adjusted results indicated that somatic (hazards ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.08) but not cognitive/affective (0.87; 0.68-1.11) symptoms predicted worse prognosis.
In a sample of women with suspected myocardial ischemia, somatic but not cognitive/affective depressive symptoms were associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular-related mortality and events. These results support the need to research dimensions of depression in CVD populations and have implications for understanding the connection between depression and CVD.