Increase in gamma-glutamyltransferase level and development of established cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes in Japanese adults.Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2009; 7(5):411-8MS
We investigated the predictive value of changes in serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Japanese.
A total of 1514 adult participants in a general health examination program were followed for 3 years until January, 2006. The subjects were divided into two groups according to whether their serum GGT level had decreased (< or =0 U/L) or increased (> or =1 U/L) from the baseline level of GGT during the study period. The logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between increases in GGT levels and the incidence of diabetes (DM), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), dyslipidemia, and hypertension (HT).
The mean value of GGT level was significantly higher at baseline than the 3-year follow-up point (47 +/- 41 versus 41 +/- 51, P < 0.0001), and the average 3-year GGT change was -5.7 +/- 32.3 U/L. The subjects with an increased GGT over the 3 years had an increased risk of developing DM, IFG, high triglyceride (TG) levels, and HT, in comparison with that of the subjects with a decreased GGT level, with an odds ratios (OR) of 6.13 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.83-13.25), 2.70 (1.68-4.34), 2.65 (1.76-3.99), and 1.54 (1.12-2.13), respectively, after adjusting for age, sex, and alcohol habits. Further adjustments for baseline GGT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), body mass index (BMI), and 3-year changes in BMI did not alter these associations.
The increased change in GGT over 3 years was a significant and an independent risk factor for the development of high TG, HT, IFG, and DM in Japanese.