Comparison of immunofluorescence and culture for the detection of Actinomyces israelii in wearers of intra-uterine contraceptive devices.J Med Microbiol. 1991 Oct; 35(4):224-8.JM
A direct immunofluorescence (IF) method was compared with traditional culture methods for the detection of Actinomyces israelii in endocervical and intra-uterine-device (IUD) smears from 124 IUD wearers. Of 11 specimens that gave positive results by IF, only one was positive by culture. Of the 10 patients with positive IF specimens, three (30%) had signs and symptoms suggestive of pelvic infection and no other pathogen was detected. Direct IF of cervical smears offers a simple, relatively cheap method to screen IUD wearers for A. israelii. Clinical management of such cases is discussed.