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Determination of drugs of abuse in airborne particles by pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry.
Anal Chem. 2009 Jun 01; 81(11):4382-8.AC

Abstract

This work describes the first analytical method specifically developed for the multianalyte determination of several drugs of abuse and their metabolites in air. The methodology is based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of atmospheric particles collected by means of high volume sampler equipped with quartz microfiber filters and subsequent analysis of the extracts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Up to 17 different compounds belonging to five different chemical classes (cocainics, amphetamine-like compounds, opioids, cannabinoids, and lysergic compounds) are determined by means of this methodology. Acquisition is performed in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode recording two transitions per compound (except for amphetamine). Quantitation by the internal standard method is based on the use of surrogated deuterated standards. The method has been validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, repeatability and sensitivity with satisfactory results. Absolute recoveries were above 50% for most investigated compounds. Method precision showed relative standard deviations (RSD) below 13% for all compounds, except for cannabinoids. The method limits of determination ranged from 0.35 pg/m(3) (for 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD) to 22.55 pg/m(3) (for 11-nor-9 carboxy THC). Finally, as a part of the method validation, the optimized procedure was applied to the analysis of ambient air samples (fine grain-size particulates, PM(2.5)) collected at two urban background sites in Barcelona and Madrid (Spain). Results evidenced the presence of cocaine, benzoilecgonine, tetrahydrocannabinol, ecstasy, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and heroin in some or all of the samples investigated. The highest mean daily levels corresponded to cocaine (850 pg/m(3)) followed by heroin (143 pg/m(3)).

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research, IDAEA-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Validation Study

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19425532

Citation

Postigo, Cristina, et al. "Determination of Drugs of Abuse in Airborne Particles By Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-electrospray-tandem Mass Spectrometry." Analytical Chemistry, vol. 81, no. 11, 2009, pp. 4382-8.
Postigo C, Lopez de Alda MJ, Viana M, et al. Determination of drugs of abuse in airborne particles by pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2009;81(11):4382-8.
Postigo, C., Lopez de Alda, M. J., Viana, M., Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Artiñano, B., & Barceló, D. (2009). Determination of drugs of abuse in airborne particles by pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry, 81(11), 4382-8. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac9002485
Postigo C, et al. Determination of Drugs of Abuse in Airborne Particles By Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-electrospray-tandem Mass Spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2009 Jun 1;81(11):4382-8. PubMed PMID: 19425532.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Determination of drugs of abuse in airborne particles by pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. AU - Postigo,Cristina, AU - Lopez de Alda,Maria J, AU - Viana,Mar, AU - Querol,Xavier, AU - Alastuey,Andrés, AU - Artiñano,Begoña, AU - Barceló,Damià, PY - 2009/5/12/entrez PY - 2009/5/12/pubmed PY - 2009/8/6/medline SP - 4382 EP - 8 JF - Analytical chemistry JO - Anal Chem VL - 81 IS - 11 N2 - This work describes the first analytical method specifically developed for the multianalyte determination of several drugs of abuse and their metabolites in air. The methodology is based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of atmospheric particles collected by means of high volume sampler equipped with quartz microfiber filters and subsequent analysis of the extracts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Up to 17 different compounds belonging to five different chemical classes (cocainics, amphetamine-like compounds, opioids, cannabinoids, and lysergic compounds) are determined by means of this methodology. Acquisition is performed in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode recording two transitions per compound (except for amphetamine). Quantitation by the internal standard method is based on the use of surrogated deuterated standards. The method has been validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, repeatability and sensitivity with satisfactory results. Absolute recoveries were above 50% for most investigated compounds. Method precision showed relative standard deviations (RSD) below 13% for all compounds, except for cannabinoids. The method limits of determination ranged from 0.35 pg/m(3) (for 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD) to 22.55 pg/m(3) (for 11-nor-9 carboxy THC). Finally, as a part of the method validation, the optimized procedure was applied to the analysis of ambient air samples (fine grain-size particulates, PM(2.5)) collected at two urban background sites in Barcelona and Madrid (Spain). Results evidenced the presence of cocaine, benzoilecgonine, tetrahydrocannabinol, ecstasy, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and heroin in some or all of the samples investigated. The highest mean daily levels corresponded to cocaine (850 pg/m(3)) followed by heroin (143 pg/m(3)). SN - 1520-6882 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19425532/Determination_of_drugs_of_abuse_in_airborne_particles_by_pressurized_liquid_extraction_and_liquid_chromatography_electrospray_tandem_mass_spectrometry_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1021/ac9002485 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -