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Associated factors for age-related maculopathy in the adult population in southern India: the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

To assess prevalence, potential risk factors and population attributable risk percentage (PAR) for age-related maculopathy (ARM) in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.

METHODS

A population-based study, cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India during 1996 and 2000. Participants from 94 clusters in one urban and three rural areas representative of the population of Andhra Pradesh underwent a detailed interview and a detailed dilated ocular evaluation by trained professionals. This report presents the prevalence estimates of ARM and examines the association of ARM with potential risk factors in persons aged 40-102 years (n = 3723). ARM was defined as per the international classification and grading system.

RESULTS

ARM was present in 327 subjects, an age-gender-area-adjusted prevalence of 8.9% (95% confidence interval (CI), 8.1% to 9.9%). Multivariate analysis showed that, the adjusted prevalence of ARM was significantly higher in those 70 years of age or older (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 3.65; 95% CI 2.24 to 5.94) and in subjects with hypertension OR 1.30 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.65). The presence of any cataract and urban residence were significantly associated with increased prevalence of ARM (OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.27 to 2.21 and 2.30; 95% CI 1.79 to 2.96) respectively. Increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and increased cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) were also significantly associated with increased prevalence of ARM (OR 1.03; 95% CI 1.002 to 1.06 and 2.25; 95% CI 1.10 to 4.67) respectively. The PAR for hypertension and any cataract was 12% and 18% respectively in this population.

CONCLUSION

The prevalence of ARM in this south Indian population is similar to those reported from other developed countries. Increased age, increased IOP and increased CDR were significantly associated with the increased risk of ARM.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. krishnaiah@lvpei.org

    , ,

    Source

    The British journal of ophthalmology 93:9 2009 Sep pg 1146-50

    MeSH

    Adult
    Age Distribution
    Aged
    Cataract
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Female
    Humans
    India
    Macular Degeneration
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Multivariate Analysis
    Prevalence
    Risk Factors
    Visual Acuity

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    19429580

    Citation

    Krishnaiah, S, et al. "Associated Factors for Age-related Maculopathy in the Adult Population in Southern India: the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study." The British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 93, no. 9, 2009, pp. 1146-50.
    Krishnaiah S, Das TP, Kovai V, et al. Associated factors for age-related maculopathy in the adult population in southern India: the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93(9):1146-50.
    Krishnaiah, S., Das, T. P., Kovai, V., & Rao, G. N. (2009). Associated factors for age-related maculopathy in the adult population in southern India: the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. The British Journal of Ophthalmology, 93(9), pp. 1146-50. doi:10.1136/bjo.2009.159723.
    Krishnaiah S, et al. Associated Factors for Age-related Maculopathy in the Adult Population in Southern India: the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93(9):1146-50. PubMed PMID: 19429580.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Associated factors for age-related maculopathy in the adult population in southern India: the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. AU - Krishnaiah,S, AU - Das,T P, AU - Kovai,V, AU - Rao,G N, Y1 - 2009/05/07/ PY - 2009/5/12/entrez PY - 2009/5/12/pubmed PY - 2009/9/16/medline SP - 1146 EP - 50 JF - The British journal of ophthalmology JO - Br J Ophthalmol VL - 93 IS - 9 N2 - BACKGROUND: To assess prevalence, potential risk factors and population attributable risk percentage (PAR) for age-related maculopathy (ARM) in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. METHODS: A population-based study, cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India during 1996 and 2000. Participants from 94 clusters in one urban and three rural areas representative of the population of Andhra Pradesh underwent a detailed interview and a detailed dilated ocular evaluation by trained professionals. This report presents the prevalence estimates of ARM and examines the association of ARM with potential risk factors in persons aged 40-102 years (n = 3723). ARM was defined as per the international classification and grading system. RESULTS: ARM was present in 327 subjects, an age-gender-area-adjusted prevalence of 8.9% (95% confidence interval (CI), 8.1% to 9.9%). Multivariate analysis showed that, the adjusted prevalence of ARM was significantly higher in those 70 years of age or older (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 3.65; 95% CI 2.24 to 5.94) and in subjects with hypertension OR 1.30 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.65). The presence of any cataract and urban residence were significantly associated with increased prevalence of ARM (OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.27 to 2.21 and 2.30; 95% CI 1.79 to 2.96) respectively. Increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and increased cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) were also significantly associated with increased prevalence of ARM (OR 1.03; 95% CI 1.002 to 1.06 and 2.25; 95% CI 1.10 to 4.67) respectively. The PAR for hypertension and any cataract was 12% and 18% respectively in this population. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of ARM in this south Indian population is similar to those reported from other developed countries. Increased age, increased IOP and increased CDR were significantly associated with the increased risk of ARM. SN - 1468-2079 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19429580/Associated_factors_for_age_related_maculopathy_in_the_adult_population_in_southern_India:_the_Andhra_Pradesh_Eye_Disease_Study_ L2 - http://bjo.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=19429580 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -