Validation of a one-dimensional model of the systemic arterial tree.Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2009; 297(1):H208-22AJ
A distributed model of the human arterial tree including all main systemic arteries coupled to a heart model is developed. The one-dimensional (1-D) form of the momentum and continuity equations is solved numerically to obtain pressures and flows throughout the systemic arterial tree. Intimal shear is modeled using the Witzig-Womersley theory. A nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive law for the arterial wall is considered. The left ventricle is modeled using the varying elastance model. Distal vessels are terminated with three-element windkessels. Coronaries are modeled assuming a systolic flow impediment proportional to ventricular varying elastance. Arterial dimensions were taken from previous 1-D models and were extended to include a detailed description of cerebral vasculature. Elastic properties were taken from the literature. To validate model predictions, noninvasive measurements of pressure and flow were performed in young volunteers. Flow in large arteries was measured with MRI, cerebral flow with ultrasound Doppler, and pressure with tonometry. The resulting 1-D model is the most complete, because it encompasses all major segments of the arterial tree, accounts for ventricular-vascular interaction, and includes an improved description of shear stress and wall viscoelasticity. Model predictions at different arterial locations compared well with measured flow and pressure waves at the same anatomical points, reflecting the agreement in the general characteristics of the "generic 1-D model" and the "average subject" of our volunteer population. The study constitutes a first validation of the complete 1-D model using human pressure and flow data and supports the applicability of the 1-D model in the human circulation.