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Weight cycling and mortality among middle-aged or older women.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Controversy exists about whether weight cycling increases morbidity and mortality.

METHODS

To assess the independent association of weight cycling with mortality, we conducted a prospective study of 44 882 middle-aged or older women in the Nurses' Health Study who provided information on intentional weight losses between 1972 and 1992, survived until at least 1994, had a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) of at least 17, and had no history of cancer (other than nonmelanoma skin cancer) or heart disease. Women who reported they had intentionally lost at least 9.1 kg at least 3 times were classified as severe weight cyclers. Women who had intentionally lost at least 4.5 kg at least 3 times but did not meet the criteria for severe weight cycling were classified as mild weight cyclers. All-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were assessed.

RESULTS

Between 1972 and 1992, approximately 18.8% of the women were mild weight cyclers, and 8.0% were severe weight cyclers. During 12 years of follow-up, 2884 women died; of their deaths, 425 were due to cardiovascular events. Weight cyclers gained more weight during follow-up than noncyclers (P < .001). After adjusting for BMI at age 18 years, physical activity, smoking, postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, alcohol intake, net weight change from age 18 years, and change in physical activity, there was no increase in risk of all-cause mortality among mild (relative risk [RR], 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-0.93) or severe cyclers (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.77-1.04). Similar results were observed for cardiovascular mortality and among women 70 years or younger.

CONCLUSION

Repeated intentional weight losses were not predictive of greater all-cause or cardiovascular mortality.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, USA. Alison.Field@childrens.harvard.edu

    ,

    Source

    Archives of internal medicine 169:9 2009 May 11 pg 881-6

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Body Mass Index
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Cohort Studies
    Female
    Humans
    Intention
    Life Style
    Middle Aged
    Nurses
    Retrospective Studies
    Risk Factors
    Survival Rate
    Weight Gain
    Weight Loss
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    19433700

    Citation

    Field, Alison E., et al. "Weight Cycling and Mortality Among Middle-aged or Older Women." Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 169, no. 9, 2009, pp. 881-6.
    Field AE, Malspeis S, Willett WC. Weight cycling and mortality among middle-aged or older women. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(9):881-6.
    Field, A. E., Malspeis, S., & Willett, W. C. (2009). Weight cycling and mortality among middle-aged or older women. Archives of Internal Medicine, 169(9), pp. 881-6. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.67.
    Field AE, Malspeis S, Willett WC. Weight Cycling and Mortality Among Middle-aged or Older Women. Arch Intern Med. 2009 May 11;169(9):881-6. PubMed PMID: 19433700.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Weight cycling and mortality among middle-aged or older women. AU - Field,Alison E, AU - Malspeis,Susan, AU - Willett,Walter C, PY - 2009/5/13/entrez PY - 2009/5/13/pubmed PY - 2009/6/9/medline SP - 881 EP - 6 JF - Archives of internal medicine JO - Arch. Intern. Med. VL - 169 IS - 9 N2 - BACKGROUND: Controversy exists about whether weight cycling increases morbidity and mortality. METHODS: To assess the independent association of weight cycling with mortality, we conducted a prospective study of 44 882 middle-aged or older women in the Nurses' Health Study who provided information on intentional weight losses between 1972 and 1992, survived until at least 1994, had a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) of at least 17, and had no history of cancer (other than nonmelanoma skin cancer) or heart disease. Women who reported they had intentionally lost at least 9.1 kg at least 3 times were classified as severe weight cyclers. Women who had intentionally lost at least 4.5 kg at least 3 times but did not meet the criteria for severe weight cycling were classified as mild weight cyclers. All-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were assessed. RESULTS: Between 1972 and 1992, approximately 18.8% of the women were mild weight cyclers, and 8.0% were severe weight cyclers. During 12 years of follow-up, 2884 women died; of their deaths, 425 were due to cardiovascular events. Weight cyclers gained more weight during follow-up than noncyclers (P < .001). After adjusting for BMI at age 18 years, physical activity, smoking, postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, alcohol intake, net weight change from age 18 years, and change in physical activity, there was no increase in risk of all-cause mortality among mild (relative risk [RR], 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-0.93) or severe cyclers (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.77-1.04). Similar results were observed for cardiovascular mortality and among women 70 years or younger. CONCLUSION: Repeated intentional weight losses were not predictive of greater all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. SN - 1538-3679 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19433700/Weight_cycling_and_mortality_among_middle_aged_or_older_women_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/10.1001/archinternmed.2009.67 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -