Anaesthesia for urgent (grade 1) caesarean section.Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2009 Jun; 22(3):352-6.CO
PURPOSE OF REVIEW
We describe the different possible anaesthetic techniques for an emergency caesarean section. To choose the right method of anaesthesia may have major implications for mother, child and all involved personnel. The major controversy is whether one have other or better alternatives or both than general anaesthesia, with a rapid sequence induction technique, when the foetus is compromised.
Recently published studies indicate that a top-up of a well functioning labour epidural is as fast as general anaesthesia, and that the top-up can be performed during preparation and transport. Spinal anaesthesia, when performed by skilled anaesthetists, is as fast or almost as fast as general anaesthesia with a very low failure rate. Combined spinal/epidural may have advantages, especially in high-risk cardiac patients, but is too time-consuming. General anaesthesia still seems to be the method of choice for most anaesthetists in extremely urgent settings. The major disadvantage with general anaesthesia is the risk of failure and the dramatic consequences of a 'cannot intubate, cannot ventilate' situation. Awareness is another concern, and the incidence varies from 0.26 to 1% in recent literature.
Regional anaesthesia techniques such as a single-shot spinal or a top-up of a well functioning labour epidural analgesia are good alternatives to general anaesthesia in an emergency caesarean setting.