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Long-term effects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight loss diet compared with an isocaloric low-fat diet after 12 mo.
Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 90(1):23-32AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Long-term weight loss and cardiometabolic effects of a very-low-carbohydrate, high-saturated-fat diet (LC) and a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet (LF) have not been evaluated under isocaloric conditions.

OBJECTIVE

The objective was to compare an energy-controlled LC diet with an LF diet at 1 y.

DESIGN

Men and women (n = 118) with abdominal obesity and at least one additional metabolic syndrome risk factor were randomly assigned to either an energy-restricted (approximately 6-7 MJ) LC diet (4%, 35%, and 61% of energy as carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively) or an isocaloric LF diet (46%, 24%, and 30% of energy as carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively) for 1 y. Weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk markers were assessed.

RESULTS

Sixty-nine participants (59%) completed the trial: 33 in the LC group and 36 in the LF group. Both groups lost similar amounts of weight (LC: -14.5 +/- 1.7 kg; LF: -11.5 +/- 1.2 kg; P = 0.14, time x diet) and body fat (LC: -11.3 +/- 1.5 kg; LF: -9.4 +/- 1.2 kg; P = 0.30). Blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, and C-reactive protein decreased independently of diet composition. Compared with the LF group, the LC group had greater decreases in triglycerides (-0.36 +/- 0.15 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.67, -0.05 mmol/L; P = 0.011), increases in HDL cholesterol (0.23 +/- 0.09 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.40 mmol/L; P = 0.018) and LDL cholesterol (0.6 +/- 0.2 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.2, 1.0 mmol/L; P = 0.001), and a greater but nonsignificant increase in apolipoprotein B (0.08 +/- 0.04 g/L; 95% CI: -0.004, 0.171 g/L; P = 0.17).

CONCLUSIONS

Under planned isoenergetic conditions, as expected, both dietary patterns resulted in similar weight loss and changes in body composition. The LC diet may offer clinical benefits to obese persons with insulin resistance. However, the increase in LDL cholesterol with the LC diet suggests that this measure should be monitored. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry at (http://www.anzctr.org.au) as ACTR 12606000203550.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Preventative Health National Research Flagship, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization-Human Nutrition, Adelaide, SA, Australia. grant.brinkworth@csiro.auNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19439458

Citation

Brinkworth, Grant D., et al. "Long-term Effects of a Very-low-carbohydrate Weight Loss Diet Compared With an Isocaloric Low-fat Diet After 12 Mo." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 90, no. 1, 2009, pp. 23-32.
Brinkworth GD, Noakes M, Buckley JD, et al. Long-term effects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight loss diet compared with an isocaloric low-fat diet after 12 mo. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(1):23-32.
Brinkworth, G. D., Noakes, M., Buckley, J. D., Keogh, J. B., & Clifton, P. M. (2009). Long-term effects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight loss diet compared with an isocaloric low-fat diet after 12 mo. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90(1), pp. 23-32. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.27326.
Brinkworth GD, et al. Long-term Effects of a Very-low-carbohydrate Weight Loss Diet Compared With an Isocaloric Low-fat Diet After 12 Mo. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(1):23-32. PubMed PMID: 19439458.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Long-term effects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight loss diet compared with an isocaloric low-fat diet after 12 mo. AU - Brinkworth,Grant D, AU - Noakes,Manny, AU - Buckley,Jonathan D, AU - Keogh,Jennifer B, AU - Clifton,Peter M, Y1 - 2009/05/13/ PY - 2009/5/15/entrez PY - 2009/5/15/pubmed PY - 2009/7/9/medline SP - 23 EP - 32 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 90 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Long-term weight loss and cardiometabolic effects of a very-low-carbohydrate, high-saturated-fat diet (LC) and a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet (LF) have not been evaluated under isocaloric conditions. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare an energy-controlled LC diet with an LF diet at 1 y. DESIGN: Men and women (n = 118) with abdominal obesity and at least one additional metabolic syndrome risk factor were randomly assigned to either an energy-restricted (approximately 6-7 MJ) LC diet (4%, 35%, and 61% of energy as carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively) or an isocaloric LF diet (46%, 24%, and 30% of energy as carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively) for 1 y. Weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk markers were assessed. RESULTS: Sixty-nine participants (59%) completed the trial: 33 in the LC group and 36 in the LF group. Both groups lost similar amounts of weight (LC: -14.5 +/- 1.7 kg; LF: -11.5 +/- 1.2 kg; P = 0.14, time x diet) and body fat (LC: -11.3 +/- 1.5 kg; LF: -9.4 +/- 1.2 kg; P = 0.30). Blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, and C-reactive protein decreased independently of diet composition. Compared with the LF group, the LC group had greater decreases in triglycerides (-0.36 +/- 0.15 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.67, -0.05 mmol/L; P = 0.011), increases in HDL cholesterol (0.23 +/- 0.09 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.40 mmol/L; P = 0.018) and LDL cholesterol (0.6 +/- 0.2 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.2, 1.0 mmol/L; P = 0.001), and a greater but nonsignificant increase in apolipoprotein B (0.08 +/- 0.04 g/L; 95% CI: -0.004, 0.171 g/L; P = 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Under planned isoenergetic conditions, as expected, both dietary patterns resulted in similar weight loss and changes in body composition. The LC diet may offer clinical benefits to obese persons with insulin resistance. However, the increase in LDL cholesterol with the LC diet suggests that this measure should be monitored. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry at (http://www.anzctr.org.au) as ACTR 12606000203550. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19439458/Long_term_effects_of_a_very_low_carbohydrate_weight_loss_diet_compared_with_an_isocaloric_low_fat_diet_after_12_mo_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.2008.27326 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -