Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Comparison of subjective, pharmacokinetic, and physiological effects of marijuana smoked as joints and blunts.
Drug Alcohol Depend 2009; 103(3):107-13DA

Abstract

Recent increases in marijuana smoking among the young adult population have been accompanied by the popularization of smoking marijuana as blunts instead of as joints. Blunts consist of marijuana wrapped in tobacco leaves, whereas joints consist of marijuana wrapped in cigarette paper. To date, the effects of marijuana smoked as joints and blunts have not been systematically compared. The current within-subject, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study sought to directly compare the subjective, physiological, and pharmacokinetic effects of marijuana smoked by these two methods. Marijuana blunt smokers (12 women and 12 men) were recruited and participated in a 6-session outpatient study. Participants were blindfolded and smoked three puffs from either a blunt or a joint containing marijuana with varying Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations (0.0, 1.8, and 3.6%). Subjective, physiological (heart rate, blood pressure, and carbon monoxide levels) and pharmacokinetic effects (plasma THC concentration) were monitored before and at specified time points for 3h after smoking. Joints produced greater increases in plasma THC and subjective ratings of marijuana intoxication, strength, and quality compared to blunts, and these effects were more pronounced in women compared to men. However, blunts produced equivalent increases in heart rate and higher carbon monoxide levels than joints, despite producing lower levels of plasma THC. These findings demonstrate that smoking marijuana in a tobacco leaf may increase the risks of marijuana use by enhancing carbon monoxide exposure and increasing heart rate compared to joints.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division on Substance Abuse, New York Psychiatric Institute and Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19443132

Citation

Cooper, Ziva D., and Margaret Haney. "Comparison of Subjective, Pharmacokinetic, and Physiological Effects of Marijuana Smoked as Joints and Blunts." Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 103, no. 3, 2009, pp. 107-13.
Cooper ZD, Haney M. Comparison of subjective, pharmacokinetic, and physiological effects of marijuana smoked as joints and blunts. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009;103(3):107-13.
Cooper, Z. D., & Haney, M. (2009). Comparison of subjective, pharmacokinetic, and physiological effects of marijuana smoked as joints and blunts. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 103(3), pp. 107-13. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.01.023.
Cooper ZD, Haney M. Comparison of Subjective, Pharmacokinetic, and Physiological Effects of Marijuana Smoked as Joints and Blunts. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009 Aug 1;103(3):107-13. PubMed PMID: 19443132.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comparison of subjective, pharmacokinetic, and physiological effects of marijuana smoked as joints and blunts. AU - Cooper,Ziva D, AU - Haney,Margaret, Y1 - 2009/05/14/ PY - 2008/09/02/received PY - 2009/01/12/revised PY - 2009/01/16/accepted PY - 2009/5/16/entrez PY - 2009/5/16/pubmed PY - 2009/8/26/medline SP - 107 EP - 13 JF - Drug and alcohol dependence JO - Drug Alcohol Depend VL - 103 IS - 3 N2 - Recent increases in marijuana smoking among the young adult population have been accompanied by the popularization of smoking marijuana as blunts instead of as joints. Blunts consist of marijuana wrapped in tobacco leaves, whereas joints consist of marijuana wrapped in cigarette paper. To date, the effects of marijuana smoked as joints and blunts have not been systematically compared. The current within-subject, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study sought to directly compare the subjective, physiological, and pharmacokinetic effects of marijuana smoked by these two methods. Marijuana blunt smokers (12 women and 12 men) were recruited and participated in a 6-session outpatient study. Participants were blindfolded and smoked three puffs from either a blunt or a joint containing marijuana with varying Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations (0.0, 1.8, and 3.6%). Subjective, physiological (heart rate, blood pressure, and carbon monoxide levels) and pharmacokinetic effects (plasma THC concentration) were monitored before and at specified time points for 3h after smoking. Joints produced greater increases in plasma THC and subjective ratings of marijuana intoxication, strength, and quality compared to blunts, and these effects were more pronounced in women compared to men. However, blunts produced equivalent increases in heart rate and higher carbon monoxide levels than joints, despite producing lower levels of plasma THC. These findings demonstrate that smoking marijuana in a tobacco leaf may increase the risks of marijuana use by enhancing carbon monoxide exposure and increasing heart rate compared to joints. SN - 1879-0046 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19443132/abstract/Comparison_of_subjective_pharmacokinetic_and_physiological_effects_of_marijuana_smoked_as_joints_and_blunts_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0376-8716(09)00104-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -