Quantification of volatile compounds in goat milk Jack cheese using static headspace gas chromatography.J Dairy Sci. 2009 Jun; 92(6):2435-43.JD
Goat milk Jack cheeses were manufactured with different levels of proteolytic endo- and exopeptidases from lysed bacterial cultures and aged for 30 wk. The aroma compounds that are potentially important in contributing the typical flavor of goat milk Jack cheese were quantified using static headspace gas chromatography. The concentrations of volatile compounds were evaluated every 6 wk throughout the aging period. Odor activity values of volatile compounds were calculated using the sensory threshold values reported in literature and their concentrations in Jack cheeses. Odor activity values of identified compounds were used to assess their potential contribution to the aroma of goat milk Jack cheeses. The odor activity values indicated that the ketones 2-hexanone, 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, and 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) were important odor-active compounds. The major odor-active acids found in this semi-hard goat milk cheese were butanoic, 2-methyl butanoic, pentanoic, hexanoic, and octanoic acids. Among the aldehydes, propanal and pentanal had high odor activity values and likely contributed to the aroma of this cheese. The concentrations of butanoic, pentanoic, hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic, and nonanoic acids increased significantly in goat milk Jack cheese throughout aging. The extracted enzymes from lysed bacterial cultures that were added to the cheeses during manufacturing caused considerable increases in the concentrations of butanoic and hexanoic acids compared with the control. However, the lower concentration of peptidases resulted in an increased concentration of butanal, whereas more peptidases resulted in a lower concentration of 2-nonanone in goat milk Jack cheeses.