Fruit and vegetable consumption and its recommended intake associated with sociodemographic factors: Thailand National Health Examination Survey III.Public Health Nutr 2009; 12(11):2192-8PH
To examine the fruit and vegetable consumption in Thailand, the percentage of Thais meeting recommended intakes and the association with sociodemographic factors.
Cross-sectional survey with a stratified, three-stage, cluster probability sampling design.
Community-dwelling men and women participating in the Thailand National Health Examination Survey III.
A total of 39 290 individuals aged >or=15 years were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain information on sociodemographic characteristics and fruit and vegetable consumption. Daily fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated through the use of a short semi-qualitative FFQ.
Overall, participants had average frequencies of fruit and vegetable consumption equal to 4.56 and 5.97 d/week, respectively. Average daily number of servings of fruit, vegetables and fruit plus vegetables were 1.46, 1.78 and 3.24, respectively. Intake amounts of fruit, vegetables and fruit plus vegetables varied by marital status and region, and were lower among males (except for vegetable intake), those of older age, those with low educational attainment, those with low monthly household income and those living in a rural area. Only 1/3, 1/4 and 1/4 of the population consumed the recommended >or=2, >or=3 and >or=5 servings/d for fruit, vegetables and fruit plus vegetables. Sociodemographic factors related to meeting the recommended intake of >or=5 servings/d for fruit plus vegetables included being female (OR = 1.13) and household income >or=50,000 Baht/month (OR = 1.66).
The amounts of fruit and vegetables consumed by Thai participants were far below the level of current recommendations. Public education and campaigns on adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables should be targeted more towards low socio-economic groups.