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Differential effects of protein quality on postprandial lipemia in response to a fat-rich meal in type 2 diabetes: comparison of whey, casein, gluten, and cod protein.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul; 90(1):41-8.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Enhanced and prolonged postprandial triglyceride responses involve increased cardiovascular disease risk in type 2 diabetes. Dietary fat and carbohydrates profoundly influence postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, whereas little information exists on the effect of proteins.

OBJECTIVE

The objective was to compare the effects of the proteins casein, whey, cod, and gluten on postprandial lipid and incretin responses to a high-fat meal in persons with type 2 diabetes.

DESIGN

A crossover study was conducted in 12 patients with type 2 diabetes. Blood samples were collected over 8 h after ingestion of a test meal containing 100 g butter and 45 g carbohydrate in combination with 45 g casein (Cas-meal), whey (Whe-meal), cod (Cod-meal), or gluten (Glu-meal). We measured plasma concentrations of triglycerides, retinyl palmitate (RP), free fatty acids, insulin, glucose, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide 1, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide.

RESULTS

The incremental area under the curve for triglyceride was significantly lower after the Whe-meal than after the other meals. The RP response was lower after the Whe-meal than after the Cas-meal and Cod-meal in the chylomicron-rich fraction and higher after the Whe-meal than after Cod- and Glu-meals in the chylomicron-poor fraction. Free fatty acids were most pronouncedly suppressed after the Whe-meal. The glucose response was lower after the Whe-meal than after the other meals, whereas no significant differences were found in insulin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide 1, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide responses.

CONCLUSION

The data suggest that as a supplement to a fat-rich meal in patients with type 2 diabetes, whey protein seems to outperform other proteins in terms of postprandial lipemia improvement, possibly because of the formation of fewer chylomicrons or increased clearance of chylomicrons. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00817973.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism C, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. lene.sundahl@ki.au.dkNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19458012

Citation

Mortensen, Lene S., et al. "Differential Effects of Protein Quality On Postprandial Lipemia in Response to a Fat-rich Meal in Type 2 Diabetes: Comparison of Whey, Casein, Gluten, and Cod Protein." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 90, no. 1, 2009, pp. 41-8.
Mortensen LS, Hartvigsen ML, Brader LJ, et al. Differential effects of protein quality on postprandial lipemia in response to a fat-rich meal in type 2 diabetes: comparison of whey, casein, gluten, and cod protein. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(1):41-8.
Mortensen, L. S., Hartvigsen, M. L., Brader, L. J., Astrup, A., Schrezenmeir, J., Holst, J. J., Thomsen, C., & Hermansen, K. (2009). Differential effects of protein quality on postprandial lipemia in response to a fat-rich meal in type 2 diabetes: comparison of whey, casein, gluten, and cod protein. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90(1), 41-8. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2008.27281
Mortensen LS, et al. Differential Effects of Protein Quality On Postprandial Lipemia in Response to a Fat-rich Meal in Type 2 Diabetes: Comparison of Whey, Casein, Gluten, and Cod Protein. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(1):41-8. PubMed PMID: 19458012.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Differential effects of protein quality on postprandial lipemia in response to a fat-rich meal in type 2 diabetes: comparison of whey, casein, gluten, and cod protein. AU - Mortensen,Lene S, AU - Hartvigsen,Merete L, AU - Brader,Lea J, AU - Astrup,Arne, AU - Schrezenmeir,Jürgen, AU - Holst,Jens J, AU - Thomsen,Claus, AU - Hermansen,Kjeld, Y1 - 2009/05/20/ PY - 2009/5/22/entrez PY - 2009/5/22/pubmed PY - 2009/7/9/medline SP - 41 EP - 8 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 90 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Enhanced and prolonged postprandial triglyceride responses involve increased cardiovascular disease risk in type 2 diabetes. Dietary fat and carbohydrates profoundly influence postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, whereas little information exists on the effect of proteins. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effects of the proteins casein, whey, cod, and gluten on postprandial lipid and incretin responses to a high-fat meal in persons with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: A crossover study was conducted in 12 patients with type 2 diabetes. Blood samples were collected over 8 h after ingestion of a test meal containing 100 g butter and 45 g carbohydrate in combination with 45 g casein (Cas-meal), whey (Whe-meal), cod (Cod-meal), or gluten (Glu-meal). We measured plasma concentrations of triglycerides, retinyl palmitate (RP), free fatty acids, insulin, glucose, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide 1, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide. RESULTS: The incremental area under the curve for triglyceride was significantly lower after the Whe-meal than after the other meals. The RP response was lower after the Whe-meal than after the Cas-meal and Cod-meal in the chylomicron-rich fraction and higher after the Whe-meal than after Cod- and Glu-meals in the chylomicron-poor fraction. Free fatty acids were most pronouncedly suppressed after the Whe-meal. The glucose response was lower after the Whe-meal than after the other meals, whereas no significant differences were found in insulin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide 1, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide responses. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that as a supplement to a fat-rich meal in patients with type 2 diabetes, whey protein seems to outperform other proteins in terms of postprandial lipemia improvement, possibly because of the formation of fewer chylomicrons or increased clearance of chylomicrons. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00817973. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19458012/Differential_effects_of_protein_quality_on_postprandial_lipemia_in_response_to_a_fat_rich_meal_in_type_2_diabetes:_comparison_of_whey_casein_gluten_and_cod_protein_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.2008.27281 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -