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Microbial protein synthesis, ruminal digestion, microbial populations, and nitrogen balance in sheep fed diets varying in forage-to-concentrate ratio and type of forage.
J Anim Sci. 2009 Sep; 87(9):2924-34.JA

Abstract

Six ruminally and duodenally cannulated sheep were used in a partially replicated 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate the effects of 4 diets on microbial synthesis, microbial populations, and ruminal digestion. The experimental diets had forage to concentrate ratios (F:C; DM basis) of 70:30 (HF) or 30:70 (HC) with alfalfa hay (A) or grass hay (G) as forage and were designated as HFA, HCA, HFG, and HCG. The concentrate was based on barley, gluten feed, wheat middlings, soybean meal, palmkern meal, wheat, corn, and mineral-vitamin premix in the proportions of 22, 20, 20, 13, 12, 5, 5, and 3%, respectively (as-is basis). Sheep were fed the diets at a daily rate of 56 g/kg of BW(0.75) to minimize feed selection. High-concentrate diets resulted in greater (P < 0.001) total tract apparent OM digestibility compared with HF diets, but no differences were detected in NDF digestibility. Ruminal digestibility of OM, NDF, and ADF was decreased by increasing the proportion of concentrate, but no differences between forages were detected. Compared with sheep fed HF diets, sheep receiving HC diets had less ruminal pH values and acetate proportions, but greater butyrate proportions. No differences among diets were detected in numbers of cellulolytic bacteria, but protozoa numbers were less (P = 0.004) and total bacteria numbers tended (P = 0.08) to be less for HC diets. Carboxymethylcellulase, xylanase, and amylase activities were greater for HC compared with HF diets, with A diets showing greater (P = 0.008) carboxymethylcellulase activities than G diets. Retained N ranged from 28.7 to 37.9% of N intake and was not affected by F:C (P = 0.62) or the type of forage (P = 0.31). Microbial N synthesis and its efficiency was greater (P < 0.001) for HC diets compared with HF diets. The results indicate that concentrates with low cereal content can be included in the diet of sheep up to 70% of the diet without detrimental effects on ruminal activity, microbial synthesis efficiency, and N losses.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Departamento de Producción Animal, Universidad de León, 24071 León, Spain.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19465498

Citation

Ramos, S, et al. "Microbial Protein Synthesis, Ruminal Digestion, Microbial Populations, and Nitrogen Balance in Sheep Fed Diets Varying in Forage-to-concentrate Ratio and Type of Forage." Journal of Animal Science, vol. 87, no. 9, 2009, pp. 2924-34.
Ramos S, Tejido ML, Martínez ME, et al. Microbial protein synthesis, ruminal digestion, microbial populations, and nitrogen balance in sheep fed diets varying in forage-to-concentrate ratio and type of forage. J Anim Sci. 2009;87(9):2924-34.
Ramos, S., Tejido, M. L., Martínez, M. E., Ranilla, M. J., & Carro, M. D. (2009). Microbial protein synthesis, ruminal digestion, microbial populations, and nitrogen balance in sheep fed diets varying in forage-to-concentrate ratio and type of forage. Journal of Animal Science, 87(9), 2924-34. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2009-1938
Ramos S, et al. Microbial Protein Synthesis, Ruminal Digestion, Microbial Populations, and Nitrogen Balance in Sheep Fed Diets Varying in Forage-to-concentrate Ratio and Type of Forage. J Anim Sci. 2009;87(9):2924-34. PubMed PMID: 19465498.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Microbial protein synthesis, ruminal digestion, microbial populations, and nitrogen balance in sheep fed diets varying in forage-to-concentrate ratio and type of forage. AU - Ramos,S, AU - Tejido,M L, AU - Martínez,M E, AU - Ranilla,M J, AU - Carro,M D, Y1 - 2009/05/22/ PY - 2009/5/26/entrez PY - 2009/5/26/pubmed PY - 2009/12/16/medline SP - 2924 EP - 34 JF - Journal of animal science JO - J. Anim. Sci. VL - 87 IS - 9 N2 - Six ruminally and duodenally cannulated sheep were used in a partially replicated 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate the effects of 4 diets on microbial synthesis, microbial populations, and ruminal digestion. The experimental diets had forage to concentrate ratios (F:C; DM basis) of 70:30 (HF) or 30:70 (HC) with alfalfa hay (A) or grass hay (G) as forage and were designated as HFA, HCA, HFG, and HCG. The concentrate was based on barley, gluten feed, wheat middlings, soybean meal, palmkern meal, wheat, corn, and mineral-vitamin premix in the proportions of 22, 20, 20, 13, 12, 5, 5, and 3%, respectively (as-is basis). Sheep were fed the diets at a daily rate of 56 g/kg of BW(0.75) to minimize feed selection. High-concentrate diets resulted in greater (P < 0.001) total tract apparent OM digestibility compared with HF diets, but no differences were detected in NDF digestibility. Ruminal digestibility of OM, NDF, and ADF was decreased by increasing the proportion of concentrate, but no differences between forages were detected. Compared with sheep fed HF diets, sheep receiving HC diets had less ruminal pH values and acetate proportions, but greater butyrate proportions. No differences among diets were detected in numbers of cellulolytic bacteria, but protozoa numbers were less (P = 0.004) and total bacteria numbers tended (P = 0.08) to be less for HC diets. Carboxymethylcellulase, xylanase, and amylase activities were greater for HC compared with HF diets, with A diets showing greater (P = 0.008) carboxymethylcellulase activities than G diets. Retained N ranged from 28.7 to 37.9% of N intake and was not affected by F:C (P = 0.62) or the type of forage (P = 0.31). Microbial N synthesis and its efficiency was greater (P < 0.001) for HC diets compared with HF diets. The results indicate that concentrates with low cereal content can be included in the diet of sheep up to 70% of the diet without detrimental effects on ruminal activity, microbial synthesis efficiency, and N losses. SN - 1525-3163 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19465498/Microbial_protein_synthesis_ruminal_digestion_microbial_populations_and_nitrogen_balance_in_sheep_fed_diets_varying_in_forage_to_concentrate_ratio_and_type_of_forage_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jas/article-lookup/doi/10.2527/jas.2009-1938 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -