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A review of the use of progestogen-only minipills for contraception during lactation.
Reprod Fertil Dev. 1991; 3(3):245-54.RF

Abstract

Progestogen-only minipills and other systems for releasing low doses of progestogens alone are widely used for contraception in breast-feeding women around the world. There is good evidence to confirm their acceptability and their lack of effect on milk production, neonatal growth and early development. In contrast, combined oral contraceptives frequently decrease milk production, and may produce minor changes in milk composition. However, even combined oral contraceptives do not appear to produce adverse effects on neonatal well-being and development, although minor reductions in initial growth rate may sometimes occur. Progestogen-only methods may also produce subtle changes in milk composition, although less than combined oral contraceptives. Steroids are transferred from plasma into milk in small quantities, but the amounts are usually very low or insufficient to allow detection in the infants using present-day assays. There has been theoretical concern that these tiny amounts of steroids might affect neonatal reproductive development, but this appears to be unwarranted. Progestogen-only methods are being widely used for post-partum contraception, and they appear to have particular advantages in this situation. They also have few disadvantages; a theoretical concern about a possible effect on later reproductive or sexual development has no evidence to support it. The present licensing situation in Australia, which lists lactation as a relative contraindication to progestogen-only contraceptive use, causes real concern to potential users and appears to lead to frequent errors in compliance.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

1947224

Citation

Fraser, I S.. "A Review of the Use of Progestogen-only Minipills for Contraception During Lactation." Reproduction, Fertility, and Development, vol. 3, no. 3, 1991, pp. 245-54.
Fraser IS. A review of the use of progestogen-only minipills for contraception during lactation. Reprod Fertil Dev. 1991;3(3):245-54.
Fraser, I. S. (1991). A review of the use of progestogen-only minipills for contraception during lactation. Reproduction, Fertility, and Development, 3(3), 245-54.
Fraser IS. A Review of the Use of Progestogen-only Minipills for Contraception During Lactation. Reprod Fertil Dev. 1991;3(3):245-54. PubMed PMID: 1947224.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A review of the use of progestogen-only minipills for contraception during lactation. A1 - Fraser,I S, PY - 1991/1/1/pubmed PY - 1991/1/1/medline PY - 1991/1/1/entrez KW - Age Factors KW - Australia KW - Biology KW - Breast Feeding KW - Child Development KW - Contraception KW - Contraceptive Agents, Female--contraindications KW - Contraceptive Agents, Female--pharmacodynamics KW - Contraceptive Agents, Progestin--contraindications KW - Contraceptive Agents, Progestin--pharmacodynamics KW - Contraceptive Agents--contraindications KW - Contraceptive Agents--pharmacodynamics KW - Demographic Factors KW - Developed Countries KW - Family Planning KW - Health KW - Human Milk KW - Infant KW - Infant Nutrition KW - Lactation KW - Literature Review KW - Maternal Physiology KW - Nutrition KW - Oceania KW - Physiology KW - Population KW - Population Characteristics KW - Youth SP - 245 EP - 54 JF - Reproduction, fertility, and development JO - Reprod. Fertil. Dev. VL - 3 IS - 3 N2 - Progestogen-only minipills and other systems for releasing low doses of progestogens alone are widely used for contraception in breast-feeding women around the world. There is good evidence to confirm their acceptability and their lack of effect on milk production, neonatal growth and early development. In contrast, combined oral contraceptives frequently decrease milk production, and may produce minor changes in milk composition. However, even combined oral contraceptives do not appear to produce adverse effects on neonatal well-being and development, although minor reductions in initial growth rate may sometimes occur. Progestogen-only methods may also produce subtle changes in milk composition, although less than combined oral contraceptives. Steroids are transferred from plasma into milk in small quantities, but the amounts are usually very low or insufficient to allow detection in the infants using present-day assays. There has been theoretical concern that these tiny amounts of steroids might affect neonatal reproductive development, but this appears to be unwarranted. Progestogen-only methods are being widely used for post-partum contraception, and they appear to have particular advantages in this situation. They also have few disadvantages; a theoretical concern about a possible effect on later reproductive or sexual development has no evidence to support it. The present licensing situation in Australia, which lists lactation as a relative contraindication to progestogen-only contraceptive use, causes real concern to potential users and appears to lead to frequent errors in compliance. SN - 1031-3613 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/1947224/A_review_of_the_use_of_progestogen_only_minipills_for_contraception_during_lactation_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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