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Tracking the entry routes of hepatitis C virus as a surrogate of HIV in an HIV-low prevalence country, the Philippines.
J Med Virol. 2009 Jul; 81(7):1157-62.JM

Abstract

From 2002 to 2007, 1,590 individuals were enrolled in an active surveillance program conducted in Metro Cebu, Philippines, where the anti-HCV-positive rate was significantly and constantly high among injecting drug users (83%, 793/960; 71-88%), especially among those living in downtown (89%, 683/770; 87-100%), despite the extremely low percentage of anti-HIV-positives (0.34%, 3/874). Sampling areas were then enlarged nationwide and the number of samples increased to 2,645 at the end of 2007. A total of 444 samples were positive for HCV RNA. Phylogenetic analysis based on NS5B and E1-E2 regions revealed that the most dominant HCV subtype was 1a, and followed by 2b, 2a, and 1b, and that the HCV strains had the largest variety in Metro Manila and its vicinity (P < 0.01). Interestingly, subtype 1b was detected solely in Metro Manila, and four HCV strains collected in this area showed higher homology to specific foreign strains retrieved from the Genbank/EMBL/DDBJ database with bootstrap values of 68-95% comparing with other strains analyzed in this nationwide study. These data suggest that HCV strains may be introduced occasionally into the Philippines possibly through Metro Manila as a main entry point. Considering the fact that an HIV epidemic started primarily via contaminated needle sharing in Asia, the constantly high rate of HCV infections and the newly introduced foreign HCV strains in the absence of HIV epidemic warrant further investigation on HCV entry and spread for early detection of an HIV epidemic in the Philippines.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Viral Infection and International Health, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan. skageyama@med.tottori-u.ac.jpNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19475613

Citation

Kageyama, Seiji, et al. "Tracking the Entry Routes of Hepatitis C Virus as a Surrogate of HIV in an HIV-low Prevalence Country, the Philippines." Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 81, no. 7, 2009, pp. 1157-62.
Kageyama S, Agdamag DM, Alesna ET, et al. Tracking the entry routes of hepatitis C virus as a surrogate of HIV in an HIV-low prevalence country, the Philippines. J Med Virol. 2009;81(7):1157-62.
Kageyama, S., Agdamag, D. M., Alesna, E. T., Abellanosa-Tac-An, I. P., Corpuz, A. C., Telan, E. F., Que, E. R., Leaño, P. S., Jereza, L. D., Emphasis, Y. E., Prasetyo, A. A., Tanimoto, T., & Ichimura, H. (2009). Tracking the entry routes of hepatitis C virus as a surrogate of HIV in an HIV-low prevalence country, the Philippines. Journal of Medical Virology, 81(7), 1157-62. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.21516
Kageyama S, et al. Tracking the Entry Routes of Hepatitis C Virus as a Surrogate of HIV in an HIV-low Prevalence Country, the Philippines. J Med Virol. 2009;81(7):1157-62. PubMed PMID: 19475613.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Tracking the entry routes of hepatitis C virus as a surrogate of HIV in an HIV-low prevalence country, the Philippines. AU - Kageyama,Seiji, AU - Agdamag,Dorothy May D, AU - Alesna,Evelyn T, AU - Abellanosa-Tac-An,Ilya P, AU - Corpuz,Aura C, AU - Telan,Elizabeth Freda O, AU - Que,Ernesto R, AU - Leaño,Prisca Susan A, AU - Jereza,Lourdes D, AU - Emphasis,Yvonne Ethyl E, AU - Prasetyo,Afiono A, AU - Tanimoto,Tomoaki, AU - Ichimura,Hiroshi, PY - 2009/5/29/entrez PY - 2009/5/29/pubmed PY - 2009/7/11/medline SP - 1157 EP - 62 JF - Journal of medical virology JO - J Med Virol VL - 81 IS - 7 N2 - From 2002 to 2007, 1,590 individuals were enrolled in an active surveillance program conducted in Metro Cebu, Philippines, where the anti-HCV-positive rate was significantly and constantly high among injecting drug users (83%, 793/960; 71-88%), especially among those living in downtown (89%, 683/770; 87-100%), despite the extremely low percentage of anti-HIV-positives (0.34%, 3/874). Sampling areas were then enlarged nationwide and the number of samples increased to 2,645 at the end of 2007. A total of 444 samples were positive for HCV RNA. Phylogenetic analysis based on NS5B and E1-E2 regions revealed that the most dominant HCV subtype was 1a, and followed by 2b, 2a, and 1b, and that the HCV strains had the largest variety in Metro Manila and its vicinity (P < 0.01). Interestingly, subtype 1b was detected solely in Metro Manila, and four HCV strains collected in this area showed higher homology to specific foreign strains retrieved from the Genbank/EMBL/DDBJ database with bootstrap values of 68-95% comparing with other strains analyzed in this nationwide study. These data suggest that HCV strains may be introduced occasionally into the Philippines possibly through Metro Manila as a main entry point. Considering the fact that an HIV epidemic started primarily via contaminated needle sharing in Asia, the constantly high rate of HCV infections and the newly introduced foreign HCV strains in the absence of HIV epidemic warrant further investigation on HCV entry and spread for early detection of an HIV epidemic in the Philippines. SN - 1096-9071 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19475613/Tracking_the_entry_routes_of_hepatitis_C_virus_as_a_surrogate_of_HIV_in_an_HIV_low_prevalence_country_the_Philippines_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.21516 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -