Pathways linking intimate partner violence and posttraumatic disorder.Trauma Violence Abuse. 2009 Jul; 10(3):211-24.TV
Intimate partner violence (IPV), which includes physical violence, sexual violence, and psychological or emotional abuse, is a significant public health threat. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that each year 1.5 million women are physically assaulted and/or raped by an intimate partner. However, because many victims of IPV are repeatedly abused, a more accurate accounting of the extent of violence suggests that approximately 4.8 million intimate partner physical assaults and rapes are perpetrated annually against women in the United States. The article discusses a survey involving 3,429 English-speaking women enrolled in a health maintenance organization (HMO) for 3 or more years. The findings are 46% of participants who were screened reported a lifetime history of any IPV and 14.7% reported a history within the past 5 years, including physical, sexual, and nonphysical types.