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Effects of vitamins C and E and beta-carotene on the risk of type 2 diabetes in women at high risk of cardiovascular disease: a randomized controlled trial.
Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 90(2):429-37AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene are major antioxidants and as such may protect against the development of type 2 diabetes via reduction of oxidative stress.

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of supplementation with vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene for primary prevention of type 2 diabetes.

DESIGN

In the Women's Antioxidant Cardiovascular Study, a randomized trial that occurred between 1995 and 2005, 8171 female health professionals aged > or =40 y with either a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or > or =3 CVD risk factors were randomly assigned to receive vitamin C (ascorbic acid, 500 mg every day), vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopherol acetate, 600 IU every other day), beta-carotene (50 mg every other day), or their respective placebos.

RESULTS

During a median follow-up of 9.2 y, a total of 895 incident cases occurred among 6574 women who were free of diabetes at baseline. There was a trend toward a modest reduction in diabetes risk in women assigned to receive vitamin C compared with those assigned to receive placebo [relative risk (RR): 0.89; 95% CI: 0.78, 1.02; P = 0.09], whereas a trend for a slight elevation in diabetes risk was observed for vitamin E treatment (RR: 1.13; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.29; P = 0.07). However, neither of these effects reached statistical significance. No significant effect was observed for beta-carotene treatment (RR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.11; P = 0.68).

CONCLUSION

Our randomized trial data showed no significant overall effects of vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene on risk of developing type 2 diabetes in women at high risk of CVD. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000541.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Preventive Medicine and Cardiology Division, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02215, USA. ysong3@rics.bwh.harvard.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19491386

Citation

Song, Yiqing, et al. "Effects of Vitamins C and E and Beta-carotene On the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Women at High Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: a Randomized Controlled Trial." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 90, no. 2, 2009, pp. 429-37.
Song Y, Cook NR, Albert CM, et al. Effects of vitamins C and E and beta-carotene on the risk of type 2 diabetes in women at high risk of cardiovascular disease: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(2):429-37.
Song, Y., Cook, N. R., Albert, C. M., Van Denburgh, M., & Manson, J. E. (2009). Effects of vitamins C and E and beta-carotene on the risk of type 2 diabetes in women at high risk of cardiovascular disease: a randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90(2), pp. 429-37. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27491.
Song Y, et al. Effects of Vitamins C and E and Beta-carotene On the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Women at High Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: a Randomized Controlled Trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(2):429-37. PubMed PMID: 19491386.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of vitamins C and E and beta-carotene on the risk of type 2 diabetes in women at high risk of cardiovascular disease: a randomized controlled trial. AU - Song,Yiqing, AU - Cook,Nancy R, AU - Albert,Christine M, AU - Van Denburgh,Martin, AU - Manson,JoAnn E, Y1 - 2009/06/02/ PY - 2009/6/4/entrez PY - 2009/6/6/pubmed PY - 2009/8/4/medline SP - 429 EP - 37 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 90 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene are major antioxidants and as such may protect against the development of type 2 diabetes via reduction of oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of supplementation with vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene for primary prevention of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: In the Women's Antioxidant Cardiovascular Study, a randomized trial that occurred between 1995 and 2005, 8171 female health professionals aged > or =40 y with either a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or > or =3 CVD risk factors were randomly assigned to receive vitamin C (ascorbic acid, 500 mg every day), vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopherol acetate, 600 IU every other day), beta-carotene (50 mg every other day), or their respective placebos. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 9.2 y, a total of 895 incident cases occurred among 6574 women who were free of diabetes at baseline. There was a trend toward a modest reduction in diabetes risk in women assigned to receive vitamin C compared with those assigned to receive placebo [relative risk (RR): 0.89; 95% CI: 0.78, 1.02; P = 0.09], whereas a trend for a slight elevation in diabetes risk was observed for vitamin E treatment (RR: 1.13; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.29; P = 0.07). However, neither of these effects reached statistical significance. No significant effect was observed for beta-carotene treatment (RR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.11; P = 0.68). CONCLUSION: Our randomized trial data showed no significant overall effects of vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene on risk of developing type 2 diabetes in women at high risk of CVD. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000541. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19491386/Effects_of_vitamins_C_and_E_and_beta_carotene_on_the_risk_of_type_2_diabetes_in_women_at_high_risk_of_cardiovascular_disease:_a_randomized_controlled_trial_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.2009.27491 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -