Temperament and attachment revisited: origin and meaning of separation intolerance at age three.Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1991 Jul; 61(3):418-27.AJ
A study of 98 mother-child pairs investigated separation intolerance at age three in terms of temperament and attachment security. Results suggested that interaction of temperamental proneness to distress and secure attachment history leads to intolerance of a lengthy laboratory separation at this age. A hypothesis that intolerance of separation in such a context represents adaptive coping for distress-prone children was tested and received support.