Associations between craniofacial morphology, head posture, and cervical vertebral body fusions in men with sleep apnea.Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009 Jun; 135(6):702.e1-9; discussion 702-3.AJ
The aim of this study was to analyze craniofacial profiles and head posture in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) subgrouped according to cervical column morphology.
Seventy-four white men aged 27 to 65 years (mean, 49.0 years) diagnosed with OSA in sleep studies by using overnight polysomnography were included. Only patients with apnea-hypopnea index scores between 5.1 and 92.7 (mean, 36.4) were included. Lateral profile radiographs in standardized head posture were taken, and cephalometric analyses of sagittal and vertical jaw relationships were made. The patients were divided into 4 groups according to fusion in the cervical vertebrae: group I, no fusions (42 subjects); group II, fusion of cervical vertebrae 2 and 3 (15 subjects); group III, occipitalization (10 subjects); and group IV, block fusion (11 subjects). Mean differences of craniofacial dimensions between the groups were assessed by unpaired t tests.
No significant differences were seen between groups I and III. Between groups I and II, significant differences were seen in jaw relationship (P < 0.05). Between groups I and IV, anterior face height and mandibular length deviated significantly. No significant differences were seen in head posture.
OSA patients with block fusions in the cervical vertebrae and fusion of 2 vertebrae differed significantly in craniofacial profile from other OSA patients.