The Test of Self-Conscious Affect-3 in Japanese university students.J Nerv Ment Dis. 2009 Jun; 197(6):458-60.JN
The psychometric properties of the Japanese Test of Self-Conscious Affect-3 (TOSCA-3), a self-report measure of self-conscious emotions, were examined in Japanese university students. Confirmatory factor analyses showed good fits of the theory-driven model for 6 emotions to the data. The subscales of the TOSCA-3 showed moderate correlations and internal consistency. Only the Shame subscale was greater among younger students, but women had higher shame and guilt than men. Social desirability moderately influenced some subscales. Test-retest reliability was good for shame and guilt. Time 1 shame predicted time 2 depression a week later. The Japanese version of the TOSCA-3 is a reliable and valid measure of self-conscious emotions among a Japanese population.