Closed-loop control of artificial pancreatic Beta -cell in type 1 diabetes mellitus using model predictive iterative learning control.IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2010 Feb; 57(2):211-9.IT
A novel combination of iterative learning control (ILC) and model predictive control (MPC), referred to here as model predictive iterative learning control (MPILC), is proposed for glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus. MPILC exploits two key factors: frequent glucose readings made possible by continuous glucose monitoring technology; and the repetitive nature of glucose-meal-insulin dynamics with a 24-h cycle. The proposed algorithm can learn from an individual's lifestyle, allowing the control performance to be improved from day to day. After less than 10 days, the blood glucose concentrations can be kept within a range of 90-170 mg/dL. Generally, control performance under MPILC is better than that under MPC. The proposed methodology is robust to random variations in meal timings within +/-60 min or meal amounts within +/-75% of the nominal value, which validates MPILC's superior robustness compared to run-to-run control. Moreover, to further improve the algorithm's robustness, an automatic scheme for setpoint update that ensures safe convergence is proposed. Furthermore, the proposed method does not require user intervention; hence, the algorithm should be of particular interest for glycemic control in children and adolescents.