Small bowel endoscopic enteral access.Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2009 Mar; 25(2):155-9.CO
PURPOSE OF REVIEW
Small bowel endoscopic enteral access is perceived as difficult. However, small bowel access is necessary for patients who are unable to tolerate gastric feedings. This review discusses the successes and challenges involved with endoscopic small bowel tube placement in various populations using a variety of placement techniques.
In general, direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (DPEJ) is becoming a more common procedure performed to obtain small bowel enteral access. BMI may be a useful predictor of DPEJ tube placement success and complication rates. A retrospective review determined that DPEJ tube placement significantly decreased the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in patients with previous recurrent aspiration pneumonia episodes. DPEJ is an effective method of providing enteral nutrition for patients when percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is not indicated because of anatomical or gastric function abnormalities. However, there are known complications of DPEJ, including small bowel volvulus. Nasojejunal tubes also can provide enteral access to the small intestine. Endoscopic insertion of nasojejunal tubes promotes decreased length of hospital stay and early initiation of enteral feedings as compared with bedside self-migrating jejunal tubes in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Endoscopically placed small bowel feeding tubes can safely deliver enteral nutrition to patients when gastric feedings are not indicated.
Continued evaluation of endoscopic jejunal tube placement methods and associated clinical outcomes in assorted populations is necessary to determine the safest and most effective technique.