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The relative reinforcing value of food predicts weight gain in a longitudinal study of 7--10-y-old children.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Aug; 90(2):276-81.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The relative reinforcing value (RRV) of food, defined as how hard an individual is prepared to work to gain access to food rather than a nonfood alternative, has been shown to be higher in obese adults and children than in their normal-weight counterparts. However, these cross-sectional studies are unable to determine whether a high RRV of food is predictive of adiposity change or whether it is a consequence of being obese.

OBJECTIVE

The objective was to examine the association between the RRV of food and 1-y weight gain in children aged 7-10 y.

DESIGN

An observational longitudinal study design was used. The RRV of food was determined by using a questionnaire method at baseline when the children (n = 316) were aged 7-9 y. Adiposity [body mass index (BMI), BMI SD score, fat mass index, waist circumference, and waist circumference SD score] was assessed at baseline and after 1 y.

RESULTS

Regression analyses indicated that the RRV of food was not associated with any measure of adiposity at baseline or at the 1-y follow-up (all P > 0.58). Changes in BMI (B = 0.06, P < 0.001), BMI SD score (B = 0.03, P = 0.001), and fat mass index (B = 0.09, P = 0.001) after 1 y were significantly predicted by the RRV of food at baseline.

CONCLUSIONS

The RRV of food predicted the change in adiposity over a relatively short-term period of 1 y and thus may be associated with the development of obesity. The lack of association in cross-sectional analyses indicates that this behavior is a risk factor for weight gain, although weight differences may not emerge until later childhood.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom, and the Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19535428

Citation

Hill, Claire, et al. "The Relative Reinforcing Value of Food Predicts Weight Gain in a Longitudinal Study of 7--10-y-old Children." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 90, no. 2, 2009, pp. 276-81.
Hill C, Saxton J, Webber L, et al. The relative reinforcing value of food predicts weight gain in a longitudinal study of 7--10-y-old children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(2):276-81.
Hill, C., Saxton, J., Webber, L., Blundell, J., & Wardle, J. (2009). The relative reinforcing value of food predicts weight gain in a longitudinal study of 7--10-y-old children. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90(2), 276-81. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.27479
Hill C, et al. The Relative Reinforcing Value of Food Predicts Weight Gain in a Longitudinal Study of 7--10-y-old Children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(2):276-81. PubMed PMID: 19535428.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The relative reinforcing value of food predicts weight gain in a longitudinal study of 7--10-y-old children. AU - Hill,Claire, AU - Saxton,Jenny, AU - Webber,Laura, AU - Blundell,John, AU - Wardle,Jane, Y1 - 2009/06/17/ PY - 2009/6/19/entrez PY - 2009/6/19/pubmed PY - 2009/8/4/medline SP - 276 EP - 81 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 90 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: The relative reinforcing value (RRV) of food, defined as how hard an individual is prepared to work to gain access to food rather than a nonfood alternative, has been shown to be higher in obese adults and children than in their normal-weight counterparts. However, these cross-sectional studies are unable to determine whether a high RRV of food is predictive of adiposity change or whether it is a consequence of being obese. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the association between the RRV of food and 1-y weight gain in children aged 7-10 y. DESIGN: An observational longitudinal study design was used. The RRV of food was determined by using a questionnaire method at baseline when the children (n = 316) were aged 7-9 y. Adiposity [body mass index (BMI), BMI SD score, fat mass index, waist circumference, and waist circumference SD score] was assessed at baseline and after 1 y. RESULTS: Regression analyses indicated that the RRV of food was not associated with any measure of adiposity at baseline or at the 1-y follow-up (all P > 0.58). Changes in BMI (B = 0.06, P < 0.001), BMI SD score (B = 0.03, P = 0.001), and fat mass index (B = 0.09, P = 0.001) after 1 y were significantly predicted by the RRV of food at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: The RRV of food predicted the change in adiposity over a relatively short-term period of 1 y and thus may be associated with the development of obesity. The lack of association in cross-sectional analyses indicates that this behavior is a risk factor for weight gain, although weight differences may not emerge until later childhood. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19535428/The_relative_reinforcing_value_of_food_predicts_weight_gain_in_a_longitudinal_study_of_7__10_y_old_children_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.2009.27479 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -