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A comparison of the effects on respiratory carbon dioxide response, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate of dexmedetomidine, propofol, and midazolam in sevoflurane-anesthetized rabbits.
Anesth Analg. 2009 Jul; 109(1):84-9.A&A

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Dexmedetomidine, propofol, and midazolam are commonly used sedative-hypnotic drugs. Using a steady-state method, we examined the CO2 ventilatory response, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) effects of these three drugs in sevoflurane-anesthetized rabbits.

METHODS

New Zealand white rabbits weighing 2.9 +/- 0.2 kg (mean +/- SD) were used. After anesthetic induction and tracheostomy, the animals inhaled 2% sevoflurane to ensure a stable level of sedation throughout the experiment. After preparation, the rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 x 4) and received the following drugs: Group C, control; Group D, dexmedetomidine infused at 2 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1); Group P, propofol with the plasma concentration maintained at 15 microg/mL; Group M, midazolam initial IV 0.3 mg/kg bolus dose, followed by infusion at 1.86 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1). At 15 minutes after the start of infusion, for 20 min periods, in random sequences, gas including 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, or 5% of CO2 was delivered to each animal. Fraction of inspired oxygen was maintained at 0.9. We did intergroup comparisons of minute ventilation (MV), respiratory rate, MAP, and HR during the final minute of each inspiratory carbon dioxide concentration (FiCO2) period.

RESULTS

For Groups P and M, the rightward shift of plots for MV against FiCO2 indicated significant respiratory depression compared with Group C. There was also significantly more depression than in Group D. We found no significant differences between Groups P and M or between Groups C and D in the plots of MV against FiCO2. No significant differences among the four groups were apparent for respiratory rate. PaCO2-MV response plots were derived from linear regression analysis of data for mean MV and mean PaCO2 at each FiCO2 to compute apneic CO2 thresholds and CO2 sensitivities. The apneic CO2 thresholds of Groups P and M were larger than those of Groups C and D. The CO2 sensitivities of Group D were slightly lower than in Group C. No similar significant difference between the CO2 sensitivities of other group pairs was apparent. MAP in Group D was lower than in Groups C and M. In Group D, HR was lower than in Groups C, P, and M.

CONCLUSIONS

The major finding is that, during sevoflurane anesthesia in rabbits, dexmedetomidine slightly altered the ventilatory response to CO2. It decreased MAP more than propofol and midazolam, which both significantly depressed the ventilatory response to CO2.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, Japan.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19535698

Citation

Chang, Cheng, et al. "A Comparison of the Effects On Respiratory Carbon Dioxide Response, Arterial Blood Pressure, and Heart Rate of Dexmedetomidine, Propofol, and Midazolam in Sevoflurane-anesthetized Rabbits." Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 109, no. 1, 2009, pp. 84-9.
Chang C, Uchiyama A, Ma L, et al. A comparison of the effects on respiratory carbon dioxide response, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate of dexmedetomidine, propofol, and midazolam in sevoflurane-anesthetized rabbits. Anesth Analg. 2009;109(1):84-9.
Chang, C., Uchiyama, A., Ma, L., Mashimo, T., & Fujino, Y. (2009). A comparison of the effects on respiratory carbon dioxide response, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate of dexmedetomidine, propofol, and midazolam in sevoflurane-anesthetized rabbits. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 109(1), 84-9. https://doi.org/10.1213/ane.0b013e3181a2ad5f
Chang C, et al. A Comparison of the Effects On Respiratory Carbon Dioxide Response, Arterial Blood Pressure, and Heart Rate of Dexmedetomidine, Propofol, and Midazolam in Sevoflurane-anesthetized Rabbits. Anesth Analg. 2009;109(1):84-9. PubMed PMID: 19535698.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A comparison of the effects on respiratory carbon dioxide response, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate of dexmedetomidine, propofol, and midazolam in sevoflurane-anesthetized rabbits. AU - Chang,Cheng, AU - Uchiyama,Akinori, AU - Ma,Ling, AU - Mashimo,Takashi, AU - Fujino,Yuji, PY - 2009/6/19/entrez PY - 2009/6/19/pubmed PY - 2009/7/22/medline SP - 84 EP - 9 JF - Anesthesia and analgesia JO - Anesth. Analg. VL - 109 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine, propofol, and midazolam are commonly used sedative-hypnotic drugs. Using a steady-state method, we examined the CO2 ventilatory response, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) effects of these three drugs in sevoflurane-anesthetized rabbits. METHODS: New Zealand white rabbits weighing 2.9 +/- 0.2 kg (mean +/- SD) were used. After anesthetic induction and tracheostomy, the animals inhaled 2% sevoflurane to ensure a stable level of sedation throughout the experiment. After preparation, the rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 x 4) and received the following drugs: Group C, control; Group D, dexmedetomidine infused at 2 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1); Group P, propofol with the plasma concentration maintained at 15 microg/mL; Group M, midazolam initial IV 0.3 mg/kg bolus dose, followed by infusion at 1.86 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1). At 15 minutes after the start of infusion, for 20 min periods, in random sequences, gas including 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, or 5% of CO2 was delivered to each animal. Fraction of inspired oxygen was maintained at 0.9. We did intergroup comparisons of minute ventilation (MV), respiratory rate, MAP, and HR during the final minute of each inspiratory carbon dioxide concentration (FiCO2) period. RESULTS: For Groups P and M, the rightward shift of plots for MV against FiCO2 indicated significant respiratory depression compared with Group C. There was also significantly more depression than in Group D. We found no significant differences between Groups P and M or between Groups C and D in the plots of MV against FiCO2. No significant differences among the four groups were apparent for respiratory rate. PaCO2-MV response plots were derived from linear regression analysis of data for mean MV and mean PaCO2 at each FiCO2 to compute apneic CO2 thresholds and CO2 sensitivities. The apneic CO2 thresholds of Groups P and M were larger than those of Groups C and D. The CO2 sensitivities of Group D were slightly lower than in Group C. No similar significant difference between the CO2 sensitivities of other group pairs was apparent. MAP in Group D was lower than in Groups C and M. In Group D, HR was lower than in Groups C, P, and M. CONCLUSIONS: The major finding is that, during sevoflurane anesthesia in rabbits, dexmedetomidine slightly altered the ventilatory response to CO2. It decreased MAP more than propofol and midazolam, which both significantly depressed the ventilatory response to CO2. SN - 1526-7598 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19535698/A_comparison_of_the_effects_on_respiratory_carbon_dioxide_response_arterial_blood_pressure_and_heart_rate_of_dexmedetomidine_propofol_and_midazolam_in_sevoflurane_anesthetized_rabbits_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ane.0b013e3181a2ad5f DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -