Steady-state model-based evaluation of sulfate reduction, autotrophic denitrification and nitrification integrated (SANI) process.Water Res. 2009 Aug; 43(14):3613-21.WR
Recently we developed a process for wastewater treatment in places where part of the fresh water usage is replaced by seawater usage. The treatment of this saline sewage consists of sulfate reduction, autotrophic denitrification and nitrification integrated (SANI) process. The process consists of an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) for sulfate reduction, an anoxic filter for autotrophic denitrification using dissolved sulfide produced in the UASB and an aerobic filter for nitrification. The system was operated for 500 days with 97% COD removal and 74% total nitrogen removal without withdrawal of sludge. To verify these results and to understand this novel process, a steady-state model was developed from the COD, nitrogen and sulfur mass and charge balances based on the stoichiometries of the sulfate reduction, the autotrophic denitrification and the autotrophic nitrification. The model predictions agreed well with measured data on COD, nitrate and sulfate removal, sulfide production, effluent TSS, and mass balances of COD, sulfur and nitrogen in the three reactors. The model explains why withdrawal of sludge from the SANI system is not needed through comparisons of the predictions and measurements of effluent TSS and phosphorus concentrations.