Growth and toxin production in the ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus polynesiensis (Dinophyceae) in culture.Toxicon. 2010 Oct; 56(5):739-50.T
The growth and toxin production in a clonal strain of Gambierdiscus polynesiensis, TB-92, was examined in batch culture conditions. The mean growth rate at exponential phase was (0.13+/-0.03)division day(-1). Regardless of the age of cultures, all mice injected with dichloromethanolic and methanolic extracts showed symptoms specific to ciguatoxin (CTX) and maitotoxin (MTX) bioactivity, respectively. The highest total toxicity assessed in TB-92 cultures was 10.4 x 10(-4) mouse unit cell(-1). The toxin production pattern reveals an enhanced cellular toxin content with the age of the culture. CTX- and MTX-like compounds each accounted for approx. 50% of the total toxicity of TB-92 cultures, except in aged cells where CTXs were dominant. The high ciguatoxic activity of TB-92 was further confirmed in dichloromethanolic extracts by means of the receptor-binding assay. The highest CTX level monitored at late stationary phase was (11.9+/-0.4)pg P-CTX-3C equiv cell(-1). Further HPLC and LC-MS analysis revealed the presence of five CTXs congeners in lipid-soluble extracts, i.e. CTX-3C, -3B, -4A, -4B and M-seco-CTX-3C, and of new CTX congeners. Toxin composition comparison between two G. polynesiensis strains suggests that the toxin profile is a stable characteristic in this species. G. polynesiensis clones also proved inherently more toxic than other Gambierdiscus species isolated from other geographical areas.