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Does anxiety affect risk of dementia? Findings from the Caerphilly Prospective Study.
Psychosom Med 2009; 71(6):659-66PM

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine the association of anxiety with incident dementia and cognitive impairment not dementia (CIND).

METHODS

We conducted a prospective study of men aged 48 to 67 years at baseline anxiety assessment; we measured cognition 17 years later. We studied 1481 men who were either eligible for examination or were known to have dementia. Trait Anxiety was assessed using the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Psychological distress was assessed using the 30-item general health questionnaire. Cognitive screening was followed by a clinical examination. Medical notes and death certificates of those not seen were also examined. Outcomes were CIND and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) dementia.

RESULTS

Of 1160 men who were cognitively screened, 174 cases of CIND and 69 cases of dementia were identified. A further 21 cases of dementia were identified from medical records. After adjustment for age, vascular risk factors and premorbid cognitive function associations with higher anxiety (31st-95th centile) were for CIND odds ratio (OR) 2.31 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.20-4.44) and for dementia OR 2.37 (95% CI = 0.98-5.71). These associations were slightly stronger for nonvascular (OR = 2.45; 95% CI = 1.28-4.68) than for vascular impairment (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 0.77-4.89). Analyses of change in cognitive performance, assessed by the Cambridge Cognitive Examination of the Elderly subscales found some evidence for decline in learning memory with higher anxiety score (b(age adj) = -0.291 (-0.551, -0.032), but not for any other subscale.

CONCLUSIONS

Anxiety is a risk factor for CIND and dementia. The extent to which the association is independent of depression and whether or not it is causal requires further study.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology, Statistics and Public Health, Centre for Health Sciences Research, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK. Gallacher@cardiff.ac.ukNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19553290

Citation

Gallacher, John, et al. "Does Anxiety Affect Risk of Dementia? Findings From the Caerphilly Prospective Study." Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 71, no. 6, 2009, pp. 659-66.
Gallacher J, Bayer A, Fish M, et al. Does anxiety affect risk of dementia? Findings from the Caerphilly Prospective Study. Psychosom Med. 2009;71(6):659-66.
Gallacher, J., Bayer, A., Fish, M., Pickering, J., Pedro, S., Dunstan, F., ... Ben-Shlomo, Y. (2009). Does anxiety affect risk of dementia? Findings from the Caerphilly Prospective Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71(6), pp. 659-66. doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181a6177c.
Gallacher J, et al. Does Anxiety Affect Risk of Dementia? Findings From the Caerphilly Prospective Study. Psychosom Med. 2009;71(6):659-66. PubMed PMID: 19553290.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Does anxiety affect risk of dementia? Findings from the Caerphilly Prospective Study. AU - Gallacher,John, AU - Bayer,Anthony, AU - Fish,Mark, AU - Pickering,Janet, AU - Pedro,Sofia, AU - Dunstan,Frank, AU - Ebrahim,Shah, AU - Ben-Shlomo,Yoav, Y1 - 2009/06/24/ PY - 2009/6/26/entrez PY - 2009/6/26/pubmed PY - 2009/8/20/medline SP - 659 EP - 66 JF - Psychosomatic medicine JO - Psychosom Med VL - 71 IS - 6 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of anxiety with incident dementia and cognitive impairment not dementia (CIND). METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of men aged 48 to 67 years at baseline anxiety assessment; we measured cognition 17 years later. We studied 1481 men who were either eligible for examination or were known to have dementia. Trait Anxiety was assessed using the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Psychological distress was assessed using the 30-item general health questionnaire. Cognitive screening was followed by a clinical examination. Medical notes and death certificates of those not seen were also examined. Outcomes were CIND and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) dementia. RESULTS: Of 1160 men who were cognitively screened, 174 cases of CIND and 69 cases of dementia were identified. A further 21 cases of dementia were identified from medical records. After adjustment for age, vascular risk factors and premorbid cognitive function associations with higher anxiety (31st-95th centile) were for CIND odds ratio (OR) 2.31 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.20-4.44) and for dementia OR 2.37 (95% CI = 0.98-5.71). These associations were slightly stronger for nonvascular (OR = 2.45; 95% CI = 1.28-4.68) than for vascular impairment (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 0.77-4.89). Analyses of change in cognitive performance, assessed by the Cambridge Cognitive Examination of the Elderly subscales found some evidence for decline in learning memory with higher anxiety score (b(age adj) = -0.291 (-0.551, -0.032), but not for any other subscale. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety is a risk factor for CIND and dementia. The extent to which the association is independent of depression and whether or not it is causal requires further study. SN - 1534-7796 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19553290/Does_anxiety_affect_risk_of_dementia_Findings_from_the_Caerphilly_Prospective_Study_ L2 - http://Insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=19553290 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -