Cardiovascular risk factors in young, overweight, and obese European adults and associations with physical activity and omega-3 index.Nutr Res. 2009 May; 29(5):305-12.NR
Excess body fat is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The hypothesis of the study was that physical activity and omega-3 index, a marker of past long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids consumption, counteract the negative associations between fatness and CVD risk factors in young overweight and obese adults. A total of 324 subjects (20-40 years, body mass index [BMI], 27.5-32.5 kg/m(2), from Iceland, Spain, and Ireland) were investigated cross-sectionally. Dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, CVD risk factors, and fatty acids in erythrocyte membrane were analyzed. Information on physical activity was collected. Linear models were constructed to find out the associations of BMI, physical activity (quartiles), and omega-3 index with CVD risk factors. The most frequently increased risk factors were blood lipids (41.4%) and blood pressure (32.1%); fewer participants experienced disturbed glucose metabolism (11.8%). Body mass index was significantly associated with increased CVD risk factors (P = .001-.029), with the exception of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein. The highest physical activity quartile had a lower fat mass (P = .005, at a given BMI), leptin (P = .008, in male participants only), and interleukin 6 (P = .021) but higher high-density lipoprotein (P = .020) than other quartiles; however, an approximate dose-response relationship could only be observed for leptin. The omega-3 index was not associated with lower low-density lipoprotein (P = .056), but docosahexaenoic acid in erythrocyte membrane was associated to it (P = .016). It is concluded that physical activity and docosahexaenoic acid diminish some of the negative health effects associated with overweight and obesity; however, body fatness remains the most important variable associated with increased CVD risk factors in young overweight and obese adults.