The performance of dental pulp stem cells on nanofibrous PCL/gelatin/nHA scaffolds.J Biomed Mater Res A 2010; 93(1):247-57JB
The aim of current study is to investigate the in vitro and in vivo behavior of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) seeded on electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL)/gelatin scaffolds with or without the addition of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). For the in vitro evaluation, DNA content, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin (OC) measurement showed that the scaffolds supported DPSC adhesion, proliferation, and odontoblastic differentiation. Moreover, the presence of nHA upregulated ALP activity and promoted OC expression. Real-time PCR data confirmed these results. SEM micrographs qualitatively confirmed the proliferation and mineralization characteristics of DPSCs on both scaffolds. Subsequently, both scaffolds seeded with DPSCs were subcutaneously implanted into immunocompromised nude mice. Scaffolds with nHA but without cells were implanted as control. Histological evaluation revealed that all implants were surrounded by a thin fibrous tissue capsule without any adverse effects. The cell/scaffold composites showed obvious in vivo hard tissue formation, but there was no sign of tissue ingrowth. Further, the combination of nHA in scaffolds did upregulate the expression of specific odontogenic genes. In conclusion, the incorporation of nHA in nanofibers indeed enhanced DPSCs differentiation towards an odontoblast-like phenotype in vitro and in vivo.