Characteristics of associated craniofacial trauma in patients with head injuries: An experience with 100 cases.J Emerg Trauma Shock 2009; 2(2):89-94JE
Facial fractures and concomitant cranial injuries carry the significant potential for mortality and neurological morbidity mainly in young adults.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
To analyze the characteristics of head injuries and associated facial injuries, the management options and outcome following cranio-facial trauma.
This retrospective review was performed at Justice K. S. Hegde Charitable Hospital, and associated A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore. Following Ethical Committee approval, hospital charts and radiographs of 100 consecutive patients of cranio-facial trauma managed at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Neurosurgery between January 2004 and December 2004 were reviewed.
Majority of the patients were in the 2nd to 4th decade (79%) with a male to female ratio of -8.09:1. Road traffic accidents were the common cause of craniofacial trauma in present study (54%) followed by fall from height (30%). Loss of consciousness was the most common clinical symptom (62%) followed by headache (33%). Zygoma was the most commonly fractured facial bone 48.2% (alone 21.2%, in combination 27.2%). Majority of patients had mild head injury and managed conservatively in present series. Causes of surgical intervention for intracranial lesions were compound depressed fracture, contusion and intracranial hematoma. Operative indications for facial fractures were displaced facial bone fractures. Major causes of mortality were associated systemic injuries.
Adult males are the most common victims in craniofacial trauma, and road traffic accidents were responsible for the majority. Most of the patients sustained mild head injuries and were managed conservatively. Open reduction and internal fixation with miniplates was used for displaced facial bone fractures.