[Application of real time polymerase chain reaction to the diagnosis and treatment of cytomegalovirus infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2009 Feb; 30(2):77-81.ZX
To investigate the role of real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) in the diagnosis and treatment of recipients cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT).
318 patients received allo-HSCT were studied. 160 patients received transplants from HLA matched sibling donors; 127 from HLA mismatched related donors; 31 from unrelated donors. Before transplant recipients and donors received CMV serological test by ELISA. After transplant RQ-PCR was used to test and monitor CMV-DNA in plasma of patients. A positive CMV-PCR was defined as > 6 x 10(2) copies/ml. Ganciclovir was used for CMV prophylaxis in all patients at -9 d to -2 d of conditioning regimen period. Ganciclovir, foscarnet, or combination of the two drugs were used as the preemptive therapy.
The total 100-day cumulative incidence of CMV infection was 40.6%. The incidence was 17.5%, 66.1% and 45.2% for the HLA matched sibling, HLA mismatched related (MMR) and unrelated donor (MUR) HSCT respectively. Multivariate analysis showed MMR HSCT, MUR HSCT, ATG containing preparative regimen and moderate to severe aGVHD were the risk factors for CMV infection after HSCT. The 100 day cumulative incidence of CMV disease was 8.8% and 5.6%, 9.4%, 22.6% respectively for total and three kinds of HSCT after early preemptive therapy. Two-year survival of CMV infection was similar in the three kinds of SCT.
Detection of CMV DNA in plasma by real time PCR appears to be effective for the diagnosis and surveillance of CMV infection after HSCT. It may help to initiate antiviral therapy and reduce the incidence of CMV disease in the patients with high risk of CMV infection.