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Relationship between oral fluid and blood concentrations of drugs of abuse in drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs.
Ther Drug Monit. 2009 Aug; 31(4):511-9.TD

Abstract

In recent years, the interest in the use of oral fluid as a biological matrix has increased significantly, particularly for detecting driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). In this study, the relationship between the oral fluid and the blood concentrations of drugs of abuse in drivers suspected of DUID is discussed. Blood and oral fluid samples were collected from drivers suspected of DUID or stopped during random controls by the police in Belgium, Germany, Finland, and Norway for the ROSITA-2 project. The blood samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), sometimes preceded by immunoassay screening of blood or urine samples. The oral fluid samples were analyzed by GC-MS or LC-MS(/MS). Scatter plots and trend lines of the blood and oral fluid concentrations and the median, mean, range, and SD of the oral fluid to blood (OF:B) ratios were calculated for amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cocaine, opiates, and Delta(9)-2 tetrahydrocannabinol. The ratios found in this study were comparable with those that were published previously, but the range was wider. The OF:B ratios of basic drugs such as amphetamines, cocaine, and opiates were >1 [amphetamine: median (range) 13 (0.5-182), methylenedioxyamphetamine: 4 (1-15), methylenedioxymethamphetamine: 6 (0.9-88), methamphetamine: 5 (2-23), cocaine: 22 (4-119), benzoylecgonine: 1 (0.2-11), morphine: 2 (0.8-6), and codeine: 10 (0.8-39)]. The ratios for benzodiazepines were very low, as could be expected as they are highly protein bound and weakly acidic, leading to low oral fluid concentrations [diazepam: 0.02 (0.01-0.15), nordiazepam: 0.04 (0.01-0.23), oxazepam: 0.05 (0.03-0.14), and temazepam: 0.1 (0.06-0.54)]. For tetrahydrocannabinol, an OF:B ratio of 15 was found (range 0.01-569). In this study, the time of last administration, the dose, and the route of administration were unknown. Nevertheless, the data reflect the variability of the OF:B ratios in drivers thought to be under the influence of drugs. The wide range of the ratios, however, does not allow reliable calculation of the blood concentrations from oral fluid concentrations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Federal Public Service Justice, National Institute of Criminalistics and Criminology, Brussels, Belgium.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19571773

Citation

Wille, Sarah M R., et al. "Relationship Between Oral Fluid and Blood Concentrations of Drugs of Abuse in Drivers Suspected of Driving Under the Influence of Drugs." Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, vol. 31, no. 4, 2009, pp. 511-9.
Wille SM, Raes E, Lillsunde P, et al. Relationship between oral fluid and blood concentrations of drugs of abuse in drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs. Ther Drug Monit. 2009;31(4):511-9.
Wille, S. M., Raes, E., Lillsunde, P., Gunnar, T., Laloup, M., Samyn, N., Christophersen, A. S., Moeller, M. R., Hammer, K. P., & Verstraete, A. G. (2009). Relationship between oral fluid and blood concentrations of drugs of abuse in drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 31(4), 511-9. https://doi.org/10.1097/FTD.0b013e3181ae46ea
Wille SM, et al. Relationship Between Oral Fluid and Blood Concentrations of Drugs of Abuse in Drivers Suspected of Driving Under the Influence of Drugs. Ther Drug Monit. 2009;31(4):511-9. PubMed PMID: 19571773.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Relationship between oral fluid and blood concentrations of drugs of abuse in drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs. AU - Wille,Sarah M R, AU - Raes,Elke, AU - Lillsunde,Pirjo, AU - Gunnar,Teemu, AU - Laloup,Marleen, AU - Samyn,Nele, AU - Christophersen,Asbjørg S, AU - Moeller,Manfred R, AU - Hammer,Karin P, AU - Verstraete,Alain G, PY - 2009/7/3/entrez PY - 2009/7/3/pubmed PY - 2010/1/16/medline SP - 511 EP - 9 JF - Therapeutic drug monitoring JO - Ther Drug Monit VL - 31 IS - 4 N2 - In recent years, the interest in the use of oral fluid as a biological matrix has increased significantly, particularly for detecting driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). In this study, the relationship between the oral fluid and the blood concentrations of drugs of abuse in drivers suspected of DUID is discussed. Blood and oral fluid samples were collected from drivers suspected of DUID or stopped during random controls by the police in Belgium, Germany, Finland, and Norway for the ROSITA-2 project. The blood samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), sometimes preceded by immunoassay screening of blood or urine samples. The oral fluid samples were analyzed by GC-MS or LC-MS(/MS). Scatter plots and trend lines of the blood and oral fluid concentrations and the median, mean, range, and SD of the oral fluid to blood (OF:B) ratios were calculated for amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cocaine, opiates, and Delta(9)-2 tetrahydrocannabinol. The ratios found in this study were comparable with those that were published previously, but the range was wider. The OF:B ratios of basic drugs such as amphetamines, cocaine, and opiates were >1 [amphetamine: median (range) 13 (0.5-182), methylenedioxyamphetamine: 4 (1-15), methylenedioxymethamphetamine: 6 (0.9-88), methamphetamine: 5 (2-23), cocaine: 22 (4-119), benzoylecgonine: 1 (0.2-11), morphine: 2 (0.8-6), and codeine: 10 (0.8-39)]. The ratios for benzodiazepines were very low, as could be expected as they are highly protein bound and weakly acidic, leading to low oral fluid concentrations [diazepam: 0.02 (0.01-0.15), nordiazepam: 0.04 (0.01-0.23), oxazepam: 0.05 (0.03-0.14), and temazepam: 0.1 (0.06-0.54)]. For tetrahydrocannabinol, an OF:B ratio of 15 was found (range 0.01-569). In this study, the time of last administration, the dose, and the route of administration were unknown. Nevertheless, the data reflect the variability of the OF:B ratios in drivers thought to be under the influence of drugs. The wide range of the ratios, however, does not allow reliable calculation of the blood concentrations from oral fluid concentrations. SN - 1536-3694 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19571773/Relationship_between_oral_fluid_and_blood_concentrations_of_drugs_of_abuse_in_drivers_suspected_of_driving_under_the_influence_of_drugs_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1097/FTD.0b013e3181ae46ea DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -