Fetal and maternal blood glucose, insulin and acid base observations following maternal glucose infusion.J Perinat Med 1977; 5(2):84-92JP
The aim of the present investigation was to examine the fetal and maternal blood glucose and insulin response following glucose infusion to the mother. The studies were performed on 11 primigravid patients with a gestational age of 38-40 weeks during the first stage of labor. Glucose was given intravenously by a bolus injection of 330 mg/kg body weight, followed by a glucose infusion of 27.5 mg/kg/min for 60 min. Glucose concentration, immuno-reactive insulin (IRI), pH and base excess of the maternal and fetal blood were measured before and during maternal glucose load. Maternal blood glucose rose within 10 min. up to 280.0 mg% (SD 25.9). This level could be fairly maintained throughout the experiment. The maternal glucose was after 60 min. infusion 326.5 mg% (SD 46.9). Fetal glucose concentration rose continuously from 65.8 mg% (SD 5.8) at control to 249.2 mg% (SD 23.3) after 60 min. The increase of maternal and fetal glucose was associated with an elevation of immuno-reactive insulin (IRI). The maternal insulin was 24.0 micronU/ml (SD 8.0). It was scattered over a wide range (55.4 micronU/ml-217.1 micronU/ml) after 60 min. glucose infusion. The fetal insulin was 17.0 micronU/ml (SD 5.2) at control and rose by 86.5% (SD 80.5) after 60 min. glucose load. One case of a mother with a subclinical diabetes mellitus deviated where the fetal insulin rose from 26.0 micronU/ml at control to 215.6 micronU/ml after 60 min. infusion. The increase of insulin per glucose rise was correlated to fetal body weight. During glucose infusion to the mother of both, fetal and maternal, acid base parameters remained unchanged. From these observations it may be concluded that in the human fetus insulin secretion following a single glucose load is generally low, however, it increases in cases where the maternal insulin response to glucose load is abnormal. This might be related to a chronic stimulation by glucose of the fetal pancreatic islet cells in poorly controlled diabetic and possibly prediabetic patients.