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Younger age of escalation of cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indian subjects.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2009 Jul 05; 9:28.BC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Cardiovascular risk factors start early, track through the young age and manifest in middle age in most societies. We conducted epidemiological studies to determine prevalence and age-specific trends in cardiovascular risk factors among adolescent and young urban Asian Indians.

METHODS

Population based epidemiological studies to identify cardiovascular risk factors were performed in North India in 1999-2002. We evaluated major risk factors-smoking or tobacco use, obesity, truncal obesity, hypertension, dysglycemia and dyslipidemia using pre-specified definitions in 2051 subjects (male 1009, female 1042) aged 15-39 years of age. Age-stratified analyses were performed and significance of trends determined using regression analyses for numerical variables and Chi2 test for trend for categorical variables. Logistic regression was used to identify univariate and multivariate odds ratios (OR) for correlation of age and risk factors.

RESULTS

In males and females respectively, smoking or tobacco use was observed in 200 (11.8%) and 18 (1.4%), overweight or obesity (body mass index, BMI > or = 25 kg/m2) in 12.4% and 14.3%, high waist-hip ratio, WHR (males > 0.9, females > 0.8) in 15% and 32.3%, hypertension in 5.6% and 3.1%, high LDL cholesterol (> or = 130 mg/dl) in 9.4% and 8.9%, low HDL cholesterol (<40 mg/dl males, <50 mg/dl females) in 16.2% and 49.7%, hypertriglyceridemia (> or = 150 mg/dl) in 9.7% and 6%, diabetes in 1.0% and 0.4% and the metabolic syndrome in 3.4% and 3.6%. Significantly increasing trends with age for indices of obesity (BMI, waist, WHR), glycemia (fasting glucose, metabolic syndrome) and lipids (cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol) were observed (p for trend < 0.01). At age 15-19 years the prevalence (%) of risk factors in males and females, respectively, was overweight/obesity in 7.6, 8.8; high WHR 4.9, 14.4; hypertension 2.3, 0.3; high LDL cholesterol 2.4, 3.2; high triglycerides 3.0, 3.2; low HDL cholesterol 8.0, 45.3; high total:HDL ratio 3.7, 4.7, diabetes 0.0 and metabolic syndrome in 0.0, 0.2 percent. At age groups 20-29 years in males and females, ORs were, for smoking 5.3, 1.0; obesity 1.6, 0.8; truncal obesity 4.5, 3.1; hypertension 2.6, 4.8; high LDL cholesterol 6.4, 1.8; high triglycerides 3.7, 0.9; low HDL cholesterol 2.4, 0.8; high total:HDL cholesterol 1.6, 1.0; diabetes 4.0, 1.0; and metabolic syndrome 37.7, 5.7 (p < 0.05 for some). At age 30-39, ORs were- smoking 16.0, 6.3; overweight 7.1, 11.3; truncal obesity 21.1, 17.2; hypertension 13.0, 64.0; high LDL cholesterol 27.4, 19.5; high triglycerides 24.2, 10.0; low HDL cholesterol 15.8, 14.1; high total:HDL cholesterol 37.9, 6.10; diabetes 50.7, 17.4; and metabolic syndrome 168.5, 146.2 (p < 0.01 for all parameters). Multivariate adjustment for BMI, waist size and WHR in men and women aged 30-39 years resulted in attenuation of ORs for hypertension and dyslipidemias.

CONCLUSION

Low prevalence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemias, diabetes and metabolic syndrome) in adolescents and rapid escalation of these risk factors by age of 30-39 years is noted in urban Asian Indians. Interventions should focus on these individuals.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicine, Fortis Escorts Hospital, Jaipur 302017, India. rajeevg@satyam.net.inNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19575817

Citation

Gupta, Rajeev, et al. "Younger Age of Escalation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Asian Indian Subjects." BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, vol. 9, 2009, p. 28.
Gupta R, Misra A, Vikram NK, et al. Younger age of escalation of cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indian subjects. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2009;9:28.
Gupta, R., Misra, A., Vikram, N. K., Kondal, D., Gupta, S. S., Agrawal, A., & Pandey, R. M. (2009). Younger age of escalation of cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indian subjects. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 9, 28. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2261-9-28
Gupta R, et al. Younger Age of Escalation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Asian Indian Subjects. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2009 Jul 5;9:28. PubMed PMID: 19575817.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Younger age of escalation of cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indian subjects. AU - Gupta,Rajeev, AU - Misra,Anoop, AU - Vikram,Naval K, AU - Kondal,Dimple, AU - Gupta,Shaon Sen, AU - Agrawal,Aachu, AU - Pandey,R M, Y1 - 2009/07/05/ PY - 2009/01/05/received PY - 2009/07/05/accepted PY - 2009/7/7/entrez PY - 2009/7/7/pubmed PY - 2009/9/25/medline SP - 28 EP - 28 JF - BMC cardiovascular disorders JO - BMC Cardiovasc Disord VL - 9 N2 - BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors start early, track through the young age and manifest in middle age in most societies. We conducted epidemiological studies to determine prevalence and age-specific trends in cardiovascular risk factors among adolescent and young urban Asian Indians. METHODS: Population based epidemiological studies to identify cardiovascular risk factors were performed in North India in 1999-2002. We evaluated major risk factors-smoking or tobacco use, obesity, truncal obesity, hypertension, dysglycemia and dyslipidemia using pre-specified definitions in 2051 subjects (male 1009, female 1042) aged 15-39 years of age. Age-stratified analyses were performed and significance of trends determined using regression analyses for numerical variables and Chi2 test for trend for categorical variables. Logistic regression was used to identify univariate and multivariate odds ratios (OR) for correlation of age and risk factors. RESULTS: In males and females respectively, smoking or tobacco use was observed in 200 (11.8%) and 18 (1.4%), overweight or obesity (body mass index, BMI > or = 25 kg/m2) in 12.4% and 14.3%, high waist-hip ratio, WHR (males > 0.9, females > 0.8) in 15% and 32.3%, hypertension in 5.6% and 3.1%, high LDL cholesterol (> or = 130 mg/dl) in 9.4% and 8.9%, low HDL cholesterol (<40 mg/dl males, <50 mg/dl females) in 16.2% and 49.7%, hypertriglyceridemia (> or = 150 mg/dl) in 9.7% and 6%, diabetes in 1.0% and 0.4% and the metabolic syndrome in 3.4% and 3.6%. Significantly increasing trends with age for indices of obesity (BMI, waist, WHR), glycemia (fasting glucose, metabolic syndrome) and lipids (cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol) were observed (p for trend < 0.01). At age 15-19 years the prevalence (%) of risk factors in males and females, respectively, was overweight/obesity in 7.6, 8.8; high WHR 4.9, 14.4; hypertension 2.3, 0.3; high LDL cholesterol 2.4, 3.2; high triglycerides 3.0, 3.2; low HDL cholesterol 8.0, 45.3; high total:HDL ratio 3.7, 4.7, diabetes 0.0 and metabolic syndrome in 0.0, 0.2 percent. At age groups 20-29 years in males and females, ORs were, for smoking 5.3, 1.0; obesity 1.6, 0.8; truncal obesity 4.5, 3.1; hypertension 2.6, 4.8; high LDL cholesterol 6.4, 1.8; high triglycerides 3.7, 0.9; low HDL cholesterol 2.4, 0.8; high total:HDL cholesterol 1.6, 1.0; diabetes 4.0, 1.0; and metabolic syndrome 37.7, 5.7 (p < 0.05 for some). At age 30-39, ORs were- smoking 16.0, 6.3; overweight 7.1, 11.3; truncal obesity 21.1, 17.2; hypertension 13.0, 64.0; high LDL cholesterol 27.4, 19.5; high triglycerides 24.2, 10.0; low HDL cholesterol 15.8, 14.1; high total:HDL cholesterol 37.9, 6.10; diabetes 50.7, 17.4; and metabolic syndrome 168.5, 146.2 (p < 0.01 for all parameters). Multivariate adjustment for BMI, waist size and WHR in men and women aged 30-39 years resulted in attenuation of ORs for hypertension and dyslipidemias. CONCLUSION: Low prevalence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemias, diabetes and metabolic syndrome) in adolescents and rapid escalation of these risk factors by age of 30-39 years is noted in urban Asian Indians. Interventions should focus on these individuals. SN - 1471-2261 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19575817/Younger_age_of_escalation_of_cardiovascular_risk_factors_in_Asian_Indian_subjects_ L2 - https://bmccardiovascdisord.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2261-9-28 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -