Portal hypertension and variceal hemorrhage.Med Clin North Am. 2009 Jul; 93(4):837-53, vii-viii.MC
Portal hypertension is a progressively debilitating complication of cirrhosis and a principal cause of mortality in patients who have hepatic decompensation. This article describes the classification system and pathophysiology of portal hypertension. It also discusses a practical approach to prevention of first variceal hemorrhage, general management of the acute bleeding episode, and secondary prophylaxis to prevent rebleeding. Pharmacologic, endoscopic, radiologic, and surgical modalities are all described in detail.