Ultrasonographic bladder measurements can replace urodynamic study for the diagnosis of non-monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis.BJU Int. 2010 Jan; 105(1):108-11.BI
To compare urodynamic (UD) and ultrasonography (US)-based measurements for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with non-monosymptomatic primary nocturnal enuresis (NMPNE).
PATIENTS AND METHODS
The study included 455 enuretic children (282 boys and 173 girls, mean age 9.58 years) with daytime voiding symptoms and with more than one void per night. In healthy children the upper limits for US-measured bladder wall thickness are 3 and 5 mm for a full or empty bladder, respectively. In 419 children the results showed urodynamic signs of an overactive bladder (OAB) and the US-measured bladder wall was thickened. After 6 months of antimuscarinic treatment, we re-assessed the children with US and UD; the relation between UD and US measurements was confirmed. After analysing these data, we considered the use of a new diagnostic assessment for patients with NMPNE. In children with a significant US measurement, i.e. a bladder wall with a thickness of >3 mm (full bladder) and >5 mm (empty bladder), the diagnostic assessment was concluded and therapy was started. We restricted the UD examination exclusively to those patients who either had severe intractable symptoms or did not respond to treatment. This new management was applied to 453 patients with NMPNE. After the first 6 months of therapy all the patients were assessed with a new US study.
In all, 343 patients (75.7%) were full-responders, with a normal bladder wall thickness; 82 (18.1%) were partial responders but with no normalization of bladder wall thickness; only 28 (6.2%) were classified as nonresponders with a persistent thickened bladder wall.
We favour a more conservative management: the UD study should be limited to the very few patients who either have severe intractable symptoms or do not respond to treatment. In our experience, the US study, which is not invasive, is useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of NMPNE and it is preferable to the UD study, which is invasive and often traumatic for children.