Revised and new reference values for environmental pollutants in urine or blood of children in Germany derived from the German environmental survey on children 2003-2006 (GerES IV).Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2009 Nov; 212(6):637-47.IJ
Based on the representative data collection of the German Environmental Survey on Children 2003-2006 (GerES IV) the Human Biomonitoring Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency has updated the reference values for a comprehensive number of environmental pollutants in blood and urine of children in Germany. Reference values are statistically derived values that indicate the upper margin of background exposure to a given pollutant in a given population at a given time. They can be used as criteria to classify the measured values of individuals or population groups as being "elevated" or "not elevated". Since environmental conditions are changing, reference values are continuously checked and updated if new information becomes available. Therefore, the previously derived reference values for metabolites of pyrethroids (cis-, trans-Cl(2)Ca and 3-PBA: 1, 2, and 2microg/l), of PAH (1-hydroxypyrene: 0.5microg/l), for arsenic in urine (15microg/l), and for PCB 138, PCB 153, PCB 180 in whole blood (0.3, 0.4, 0.3microg/l) and for DDE (western Germany) in whole blood (0.7microg/l) were confirmed. The following reference values were lowered: lead in blood from 50 to 35microg/l, cadmium in urine from 0.5 to 0.2microg/l, mercury in whole blood from 1.0 to 0.8microg/l, mercury in urine from 0.7 to 0.4microg/l, beta-HCH in whole blood from 0.3 to 0.1microg/l, HCB in whole blood from 0.3 to 0.2microg/l, and DMP in urine from 135 to 75microg/l, and DMTP in urine from 160 to 100microg/l. Based on the extended data set of the GerES IV, the reference value for the sum of PCB 138+153+180 in whole blood of children aged 7 to 14 was raised from 0.9 to 1.0microg/l. The reference value for DEP in urine of children aged 3 to 14 was raised from 16 to 30microg/l. New reference values in urine of children aged 3 to 14 living in Germany were derived for antimony (0.3microg/l), nickel (4.5microg/l), thallium (0.6microg/l), uranium (0.04microg/l), metabolites of organophosphorous compounds (DMDTP, DETP: 10microg/l, 10microg/l) and metabolites of PAH (1-hydroxyphenanthrene: 0.6microg/l; 2/9-hydroxyphenanthrene: 0.4microg/l; 3-hydroxyphenanthrene: 0.5microg/l; 4-hydroxyphenanthrene: 0.2microg/l; Sigma hydroxyphenanthrene (1, 2/9, 3, 4): 1.5microg/l) in urine and for DDE in blood of children aged 7 to 14 years living in eastern Germany (1.4microg/l). If reliable and repeated measurements show a value above the reference value, an environmental hygiene-based search for the causes and sources of this exposure is recommended. After that, it should be checked whether the exposure can be decreased within reasonable bounds.