Long lasting immunity in chickens induced by a single shot of influenza vaccine prepared from inactivated non-pathogenic H5N1 virus particles against challenge with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.Vaccine. 2009 Aug 20; 27(38):5174-7.V
An influenza vaccine was prepared from inactivated whole particles of the non-pathogenic strain A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/04 (H5N1) virus using an oil adjuvant containing anhydromannitol-octadecenoate-ether (AMOE). The vaccine was injected intramuscularly into five 4-week-old chickens, and 138 weeks after vaccination, they were challenged intranasally with 100 times 50% chicken lethal dose of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Yamaguchi/7/04 (H5N1). All 5 chickens survived without exhibiting clinical signs of influenza, although 2 days post-challenge, 3 vaccinated chickens shed limited titres of viruses in laryngopharyngeal swabs.