Pesticide residues in coastal waters affected by rice paddy effluents temporarily stored in a wastewater reservoir in southern Japan.Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010 Feb; 58(2):352-60.AE
This paper presents the occurrence, distribution, and environmental impact of pesticide residues in coastal water in southern Japan that receives effluents from a wastewater reservoir temporarily storing surface runoffs of rice paddy fields located near the coastline during the 2005 rice planting season. Concentrations of 14 target pesticides were measured by GC-MS and the hazards posed by the most important pesticides detected were evaluated by acute toxicity tests using a marine diatom, Chaetoceros sp., and a marine amphipod, Hyale barbicornis. Six pesticides (fenobucarb, flutolanil, iprobenfos, mefenacet, phthalide, pyriproxyfen) were detected in the coastal water, with three pesticides (fenobucarb, iprobenfos, and mefenacet) having 100% frequencies of detection. The maximum concentration of mefenacet, at 4.22 microg/L, was at least one magnitude higher than that of fenobucarb and iprobenfos, at 0.27 and 0.19 microg/L, respectively, while the three remaining pesticides had concentrations just around the detection limit of 0.01 microg/L. Consequently, detected concentrations of mefenacet were highly correlated with salinity levels, confirming that the wastewater reservoir is a major source of rice pesticide residues in this particular coastal environment. Hence, the spatial distribution of mefenacet was simulated using their relationship and the results indicate that mefenacet has a tendency to enter and spread to a relatively wide portion of the coastal area during the rice planting season. There is also a possibility that the other pesticides used in rice farming such as fenobucarb and iprobenfos may show similar distribution patterns in coastal waters when they are present in the wastewater reservoir at higher concentrations. These pesticides, however, manifested low acute toxicities to both Chaetoceros sp. and H. barbicornis, suggesting little impact to marine organisms.