Association of concurrent hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen with hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B virus infection.J Med Virol. 2009 Sep; 81(9):1531-8.JM
Antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (anti-HBs) can exist in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To date, little is known about the association of concurrent HBsAg and anti-HBs (concurrent HBsAg/ anti-HBs) with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of concurrent HBsAg/anti-HBs with preS deletion mutations and HCC in chronic HBV infection. A total of 755 patients with chronic HBV infection were included consecutively at a tertiary center. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for HCC, and serum HBV DNA was amplified, followed by direct sequencing to detect preS deletions. The prevalence of concurrent HBsAg/anti-HBs was 6.4% (48/755) and all HBVs tested were genotype C. HCC occurred more frequently in the concurrent HBsAg/anti-HBs group than in the HBsAg only group [22.9% (11/48) vs. 7.9% (56/707), P = 0.002]. In multivariate analyses, age >40 years [odds ratio (OR), 14.712; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.365-49.579; P < 0.001], male gender (OR 2.431; 95% CI, 1.226-4.820; P = 0.011), decompensated cirrhosis (OR, 3.642; 95% CI, 1.788-7.421; P < 0.001) and concurrent HBsAg/anti-HBs (OR, 4.336; 95% CI, 1.956-9.613; P < 0.001) were associated independently with HCC. In molecular analysis, preS deletion mutations were more frequent in the concurrent HBsAg/anti-HBs and HCC groups than in the HBsAg without HCC group (42.3% and 32.5% vs. 11.3%; P = 0.002 and 0.012, respectively). In conclusion, concurrent HBsAg/anti-HBs is associated with preS deletion mutations and may be one of the risk factors for HCC in chronic HBV infection with genotype C.