Relative risks of exposure to different smoking models on the development of nicotine dependence during adolescence: a five-wave longitudinal study.J Adolesc Health. 2009 Aug; 45(2):171-8.JA
Many studies have focused upon predictors of smoking onset and continuation in adolescents. However, less is known about the development of nicotine dependence (ND) and how smoking in the interpersonal environment relates to this. To examine which smoking models have the largest impact on the development of ND, we examined the relative impact of current smoking from fathers, mothers, siblings, best friends, and friend groups on the development of ND in adolescents.
Data were used from five annual waves of the "Family and Health" survey project. At baseline 428 adolescents (mean age=15.2 years; SD=.60), both their parents, and their siblings were participating. In this study we included only smoking adolescents (n=175). To assess the individual development of ND of each adolescent, and whether current smoking exposure affected changes from baseline across time, we used latent growth curve modeling (LGC).
Findings revealed that smoking of sibling and best friend were related to baseline levels of ND, but not to the rates of change over time. Of all models, only having smoking friends in the friend group was related to a faster development of ND.
The current findings highlight the key role of smoking friends in the development of ND and suggest that interventions targeting at peers are probably effective in reducing the prevalence of ND symptoms among adolescents.