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Extended urinary Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol excretion in chronic cannabis users precludes use as a biomarker of new drug exposure.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009 Nov 01; 105(1-2):24-32.DA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Generally, urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) after alkaline hydrolysis is monitored to detect cannabis exposure, although last use may have been weeks prior in chronic cannabis users. Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) concentrations in urine following Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase hydrolysis were proposed as biomarkers of recent (within 8h) cannabis use.

OBJECTIVE

To test the validity of THC and 11-OH-THC in urine as indicators of recent cannabis use.

METHODS

Monitor urinary cannabinoid excretion in 33 chronic cannabis smokers who resided on a secure research unit under 24h continuous medical surveillance. All urine specimens were collected individually ad libidum for up to 30 days, were hydrolyzed with a tandem E. coli beta-glucuronidase/base procedure, and analyzed for THC, 11-OH-THC and THCCOOH by one- and two-dimensional-cryotrap gas chromatography mass spectrometry (2D-GCMS) with limits of quantification of 2.5 ng/mL.

RESULTS

Extended excretion of THC and 11-OH-THC in chronic cannabis users' urine was observed during monitored abstinence; 14 of 33 participants had measurable THC in specimens collected at least 24h after abstinence initiation. Seven subjects had measurable THC in urine for 3, 3, 4, 7, 7, 12, and 24 days after cannabis cessation. 11-OH-THC and THCCOOH were detectable in urine specimens from one heavy, chronic cannabis user for at least 24 days.

CONCLUSION

For the first time, extended urinary excretion of THC and 11-OH-THC is documented for at least 24 days, negating their effectiveness as biomarkers of recent cannabis exposure, and substantiating long terminal elimination times for urinary cannabinoids following chronic cannabis smoking.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Biomedical Research Center, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Suite 05A721, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19631478

Citation

Lowe, Ross H., et al. "Extended Urinary Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol Excretion in Chronic Cannabis Users Precludes Use as a Biomarker of New Drug Exposure." Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 105, no. 1-2, 2009, pp. 24-32.
Lowe RH, Abraham TT, Darwin WD, et al. Extended urinary Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol excretion in chronic cannabis users precludes use as a biomarker of new drug exposure. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009;105(1-2):24-32.
Lowe, R. H., Abraham, T. T., Darwin, W. D., Herning, R., Cadet, J. L., & Huestis, M. A. (2009). Extended urinary Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol excretion in chronic cannabis users precludes use as a biomarker of new drug exposure. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 105(1-2), 24-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.05.027
Lowe RH, et al. Extended Urinary Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol Excretion in Chronic Cannabis Users Precludes Use as a Biomarker of New Drug Exposure. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009 Nov 1;105(1-2):24-32. PubMed PMID: 19631478.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Extended urinary Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol excretion in chronic cannabis users precludes use as a biomarker of new drug exposure. AU - Lowe,Ross H, AU - Abraham,Tsadik T, AU - Darwin,William D, AU - Herning,Ronald, AU - Cadet,Jean Lud, AU - Huestis,Marilyn A, Y1 - 2009/07/23/ PY - 2008/12/29/received PY - 2009/05/22/revised PY - 2009/05/27/accepted PY - 2009/7/28/entrez PY - 2009/7/28/pubmed PY - 2009/12/16/medline SP - 24 EP - 32 JF - Drug and alcohol dependence JO - Drug Alcohol Depend VL - 105 IS - 1-2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Generally, urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) after alkaline hydrolysis is monitored to detect cannabis exposure, although last use may have been weeks prior in chronic cannabis users. Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) concentrations in urine following Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase hydrolysis were proposed as biomarkers of recent (within 8h) cannabis use. OBJECTIVE: To test the validity of THC and 11-OH-THC in urine as indicators of recent cannabis use. METHODS: Monitor urinary cannabinoid excretion in 33 chronic cannabis smokers who resided on a secure research unit under 24h continuous medical surveillance. All urine specimens were collected individually ad libidum for up to 30 days, were hydrolyzed with a tandem E. coli beta-glucuronidase/base procedure, and analyzed for THC, 11-OH-THC and THCCOOH by one- and two-dimensional-cryotrap gas chromatography mass spectrometry (2D-GCMS) with limits of quantification of 2.5 ng/mL. RESULTS: Extended excretion of THC and 11-OH-THC in chronic cannabis users' urine was observed during monitored abstinence; 14 of 33 participants had measurable THC in specimens collected at least 24h after abstinence initiation. Seven subjects had measurable THC in urine for 3, 3, 4, 7, 7, 12, and 24 days after cannabis cessation. 11-OH-THC and THCCOOH were detectable in urine specimens from one heavy, chronic cannabis user for at least 24 days. CONCLUSION: For the first time, extended urinary excretion of THC and 11-OH-THC is documented for at least 24 days, negating their effectiveness as biomarkers of recent cannabis exposure, and substantiating long terminal elimination times for urinary cannabinoids following chronic cannabis smoking. SN - 1879-0046 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19631478/Extended_urinary_Delta9_tetrahydrocannabinol_excretion_in_chronic_cannabis_users_precludes_use_as_a_biomarker_of_new_drug_exposure_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0376-8716(09)00220-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -