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Extended urinary Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol excretion in chronic cannabis users precludes use as a biomarker of new drug exposure.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Generally, urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) after alkaline hydrolysis is monitored to detect cannabis exposure, although last use may have been weeks prior in chronic cannabis users. Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) concentrations in urine following Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase hydrolysis were proposed as biomarkers of recent (within 8h) cannabis use.

OBJECTIVE

To test the validity of THC and 11-OH-THC in urine as indicators of recent cannabis use.

METHODS

Monitor urinary cannabinoid excretion in 33 chronic cannabis smokers who resided on a secure research unit under 24h continuous medical surveillance. All urine specimens were collected individually ad libidum for up to 30 days, were hydrolyzed with a tandem E. coli beta-glucuronidase/base procedure, and analyzed for THC, 11-OH-THC and THCCOOH by one- and two-dimensional-cryotrap gas chromatography mass spectrometry (2D-GCMS) with limits of quantification of 2.5 ng/mL.

RESULTS

Extended excretion of THC and 11-OH-THC in chronic cannabis users' urine was observed during monitored abstinence; 14 of 33 participants had measurable THC in specimens collected at least 24h after abstinence initiation. Seven subjects had measurable THC in urine for 3, 3, 4, 7, 7, 12, and 24 days after cannabis cessation. 11-OH-THC and THCCOOH were detectable in urine specimens from one heavy, chronic cannabis user for at least 24 days.

CONCLUSION

For the first time, extended urinary excretion of THC and 11-OH-THC is documented for at least 24 days, negating their effectiveness as biomarkers of recent cannabis exposure, and substantiating long terminal elimination times for urinary cannabinoids following chronic cannabis smoking.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Biomedical Research Center, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Suite 05A721, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

    , , , ,

    Source

    Drug and alcohol dependence 105:1-2 2009 Nov 01 pg 24-32

    MeSH

    Adult
    Biomarkers
    Chronic Disease
    Dronabinol
    Ethnic Groups
    Female
    Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
    Humans
    Male
    Marijuana Abuse
    Substance Abuse Detection
    Substance-Related Disorders
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    19631478

    Citation

    TY - JOUR T1 - Extended urinary Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol excretion in chronic cannabis users precludes use as a biomarker of new drug exposure. AU - Lowe,Ross H, AU - Abraham,Tsadik T, AU - Darwin,William D, AU - Herning,Ronald, AU - Cadet,Jean Lud, AU - Huestis,Marilyn A, Y1 - 2009/07/23/ PY - 2008/12/29/received PY - 2009/05/22/revised PY - 2009/05/27/accepted PY - 2009/7/28/entrez PY - 2009/7/28/pubmed PY - 2009/12/16/medline SP - 24 EP - 32 JF - Drug and alcohol dependence JO - Drug Alcohol Depend VL - 105 IS - 1-2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Generally, urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) after alkaline hydrolysis is monitored to detect cannabis exposure, although last use may have been weeks prior in chronic cannabis users. Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) concentrations in urine following Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase hydrolysis were proposed as biomarkers of recent (within 8h) cannabis use. OBJECTIVE: To test the validity of THC and 11-OH-THC in urine as indicators of recent cannabis use. METHODS: Monitor urinary cannabinoid excretion in 33 chronic cannabis smokers who resided on a secure research unit under 24h continuous medical surveillance. All urine specimens were collected individually ad libidum for up to 30 days, were hydrolyzed with a tandem E. coli beta-glucuronidase/base procedure, and analyzed for THC, 11-OH-THC and THCCOOH by one- and two-dimensional-cryotrap gas chromatography mass spectrometry (2D-GCMS) with limits of quantification of 2.5 ng/mL. RESULTS: Extended excretion of THC and 11-OH-THC in chronic cannabis users' urine was observed during monitored abstinence; 14 of 33 participants had measurable THC in specimens collected at least 24h after abstinence initiation. Seven subjects had measurable THC in urine for 3, 3, 4, 7, 7, 12, and 24 days after cannabis cessation. 11-OH-THC and THCCOOH were detectable in urine specimens from one heavy, chronic cannabis user for at least 24 days. CONCLUSION: For the first time, extended urinary excretion of THC and 11-OH-THC is documented for at least 24 days, negating their effectiveness as biomarkers of recent cannabis exposure, and substantiating long terminal elimination times for urinary cannabinoids following chronic cannabis smoking. SN - 1879-0046 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19631478/abstract/Extended_urinary_Delta9_tetrahydrocannabinol_excretion_in_chronic_cannabis_users_precludes_use_as_a_biomarker_of_new_drug_exposure_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0376-8716(09)00220-8 ER -