Dietary fat intake--a global perspective.Ann Nutr Metab. 2009; 54 Suppl 1:8-14.AN
The objective of this review was to collect data on the dietary intake of total fat and saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially linoleic (LA), alpha-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids, in adults from various countries and to compare them with current recommendations for fat intake.
Weighted mean intake data were collected from national dietary surveys, large cross-sectional studies and/or studies with focus on health and nutrition. Thereof, only studies with diet recalls, weighing records or food frequency questionnaires were considered.
Data from 28 countries were included, representing Africa (3), America (4), Asia (5), Australia/New Zealand (2) and Europe (14). Total fat intake ranged from 11.1 (China, Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations) to 50.7 (rural dwellers in Nigeria) percentages of total energy (%E). SFA intake varied from 3.1 (China, Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations) to 25.4%E (rural dwellers in Nigeria). Mean MUFA and PUFA intake ranged from 3.5 (China, Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations) to 22.3 (Greece), and 3.3 (India) to 11.3%E (Taiwan), respectively. The mean intake of LA and ALA was between 2.7 (India) and 7.2 (Austria), and 0.4 (France) and 1.0%E (Finland).
With regard to recommendations for fat intake, no general advice for improvements can be given worldwide. Due to different dietary patterns, only regionally specific recommendations can be made about what would be necessary to modify and improve fat quantity and quality of the diet.