Phylogeny of Spinicaudata (Branchiopoda, Crustacea) based on three molecular markers--an Australian origin for Limnadopsis.Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2009 Dec; 53(3):716-25.MP
Taxonomy and phylogeny within the branchiopod taxon Spinicaudata are still controversial. We analyzed sequences of three gene fragments (28S rRNA, 16S rRNA and COI) from up to 41 species of the Cyzicidae, Limnadiidae and Leptestheriidae to infer their phylogenetic relationships, focusing in particular on species from Australia and their phylogenetic position within Spinicaudata. Four major monophyletic lineages could be distinguished: Limnadiidae, Leptestheriidae, Eocyzicus and all Cyzicidae except Eocyzicus. A clear genetic distinction between Australian and non-Australian Cyzicidae is well supported (i.e. Caenestheria and Caenestheriella species from Australia and Caenestheriella and Cyzicus species from Europe, Asia and North America). In the genera Eocyzicus and Eulimnadia the Australian species were closely related to those from other continents. The species of the Australian endemic genus Limnadopsis and Australian Limnadia species form a monophylum. This suggests that the origin of Limnadopsis lies in Australia and that Limnadia is not monophyletic.