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Risk of human papillomavirus-associated cancers among persons with AIDS.
J Natl Cancer Inst 2009; 101(16):1120-30JNCI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Although risk of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers of the anus, cervix, oropharynx, penis, vagina, and vulva is increased among persons with AIDS, the etiologic role of immunosuppression is unclear and incidence trends for these cancers over time, particularly after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in 1996, are not well described.

METHODS

Data on 499 230 individuals diagnosed with AIDS from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2004, were linked with cancer registries in 15 US regions. Risk of in situ and invasive HPV-associated cancers, compared with that in the general population, was measured by use of standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We evaluated the relationship of immunosuppression with incidence during the period of 4-60 months after AIDS onset by use of CD4 T-cell counts measured at AIDS onset. Incidence during the 4-60 months after AIDS onset was compared across three periods (1980-1989, 1990-1995, and 1996-2004). All statistical tests were two-sided.

RESULTS

Among persons with AIDS, we observed statistically significantly elevated risk of all HPV-associated in situ (SIRs ranged from 8.9, 95% CI = 8.0 to 9.9, for cervical cancer to 68.6, 95% CI = 59.7 to 78.4, for anal cancer among men) and invasive (SIRs ranged from 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2 to 2.1, for oropharyngeal cancer to 34.6, 95% CI = 30.8 to 38.8, for anal cancer among men) cancers. During 1996-2004, low CD4 T-cell count was associated with statistically significantly increased risk of invasive anal cancer among men (relative risk [RR] per decline of 100 CD4 T cells per cubic millimeter = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.66, P = .006) and non-statistically significantly increased risk of in situ vagina or vulva cancer (RR = 1.52, 95% CI = 0.99 to 2.35, P = .055) and of invasive cervical cancer (RR = 1.32, 95% CI = 0.96 to 1.80, P = .077). Among men, incidence (per 100 000 person-years) of in situ and invasive anal cancer was statistically significantly higher during 1996-2004 than during 1990-1995 (61% increase for in situ cancers, 18.3 cases vs 29.5 cases, respectively; RR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.24 to 2.35, P < .001; and 104% increase for invasive cancers, 20.7 cases vs 42.3 cases, respectively; RR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.54 to 2.68, P < .001). Incidence of other cancers was stable over time.

CONCLUSIONS

Risk of HPV-associated cancers was elevated among persons with AIDS and increased with increasing immunosuppression. The increasing incidence for anal cancer during 1996-2004 indicates that prolonged survival may be associated with increased risk of certain HPV-associated cancers.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6120 Executive Blvd, EPS 7072, Rockville, MD 20852, USA. chaturva@mail.nih.govNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19648510

Citation

Chaturvedi, Anil K., et al. "Risk of Human Papillomavirus-associated Cancers Among Persons With AIDS." Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 101, no. 16, 2009, pp. 1120-30.
Chaturvedi AK, Madeleine MM, Biggar RJ, et al. Risk of human papillomavirus-associated cancers among persons with AIDS. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101(16):1120-30.
Chaturvedi, A. K., Madeleine, M. M., Biggar, R. J., & Engels, E. A. (2009). Risk of human papillomavirus-associated cancers among persons with AIDS. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 101(16), pp. 1120-30. doi:10.1093/jnci/djp205.
Chaturvedi AK, et al. Risk of Human Papillomavirus-associated Cancers Among Persons With AIDS. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009 Aug 19;101(16):1120-30. PubMed PMID: 19648510.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Risk of human papillomavirus-associated cancers among persons with AIDS. AU - Chaturvedi,Anil K, AU - Madeleine,Margaret M, AU - Biggar,Robert J, AU - Engels,Eric A, Y1 - 2009/07/31/ PY - 2009/8/4/entrez PY - 2009/8/4/pubmed PY - 2009/9/1/medline SP - 1120 EP - 30 JF - Journal of the National Cancer Institute JO - J. Natl. Cancer Inst. VL - 101 IS - 16 N2 - BACKGROUND: Although risk of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers of the anus, cervix, oropharynx, penis, vagina, and vulva is increased among persons with AIDS, the etiologic role of immunosuppression is unclear and incidence trends for these cancers over time, particularly after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in 1996, are not well described. METHODS: Data on 499 230 individuals diagnosed with AIDS from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2004, were linked with cancer registries in 15 US regions. Risk of in situ and invasive HPV-associated cancers, compared with that in the general population, was measured by use of standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We evaluated the relationship of immunosuppression with incidence during the period of 4-60 months after AIDS onset by use of CD4 T-cell counts measured at AIDS onset. Incidence during the 4-60 months after AIDS onset was compared across three periods (1980-1989, 1990-1995, and 1996-2004). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Among persons with AIDS, we observed statistically significantly elevated risk of all HPV-associated in situ (SIRs ranged from 8.9, 95% CI = 8.0 to 9.9, for cervical cancer to 68.6, 95% CI = 59.7 to 78.4, for anal cancer among men) and invasive (SIRs ranged from 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2 to 2.1, for oropharyngeal cancer to 34.6, 95% CI = 30.8 to 38.8, for anal cancer among men) cancers. During 1996-2004, low CD4 T-cell count was associated with statistically significantly increased risk of invasive anal cancer among men (relative risk [RR] per decline of 100 CD4 T cells per cubic millimeter = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.66, P = .006) and non-statistically significantly increased risk of in situ vagina or vulva cancer (RR = 1.52, 95% CI = 0.99 to 2.35, P = .055) and of invasive cervical cancer (RR = 1.32, 95% CI = 0.96 to 1.80, P = .077). Among men, incidence (per 100 000 person-years) of in situ and invasive anal cancer was statistically significantly higher during 1996-2004 than during 1990-1995 (61% increase for in situ cancers, 18.3 cases vs 29.5 cases, respectively; RR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.24 to 2.35, P < .001; and 104% increase for invasive cancers, 20.7 cases vs 42.3 cases, respectively; RR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.54 to 2.68, P < .001). Incidence of other cancers was stable over time. CONCLUSIONS: Risk of HPV-associated cancers was elevated among persons with AIDS and increased with increasing immunosuppression. The increasing incidence for anal cancer during 1996-2004 indicates that prolonged survival may be associated with increased risk of certain HPV-associated cancers. SN - 1460-2105 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19648510/Risk_of_human_papillomavirus_associated_cancers_among_persons_with_AIDS_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jnci/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jnci/djp205 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -