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Ankyloglossia: facts and myths in diagnosis and treatment.
J Periodontol 2009; 80(8):1204-19JP

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The objective of this study was to systematically review the diagnostic criteria, indications, and need for treatment of ankyloglossia (tongue-tie), as well as the various treatment options for patients in different age groups.

METHODS

The MEDLINE databases and the Cochrane Library were searched according to well-defined criteria, resulting in 64 included articles. The evidence regarding the classifications of tongue-tie, epidemiologic data, inheritance, breastfeeding problems, impaired tongue mobility, speech disorders, malocclusion, gingival recessions, therapy, and complications due to surgery was analyzed in detail.

RESULTS

Different classifications for ankyloglossia have been proposed but not uniformly accepted. Breastfeeding problems in neonates could be associated with a tongue-tie, but not enough controlled trials have been performed to identify an ideal treatment option. In children and adults with ankyloglossia, limitations in tongue mobility are present, but the individual degree of discomfort, as well as the severity of an associated speech problem, are subjective and difficult to categorize. There is no evidence supporting the development of gingival recessions because of ankyloglossia. Frenotomy, frenectomy, and frenuloplasty are the main surgical treatment options to release/remove an ankyloglossia. Because of the limited evidence available, no specific surgical method can be favored.

CONCLUSIONS

The lack of an accepted definition and classification of ankyloglossia makes comparisons between studies almost impossible. Because almost no controlled prospective trials for surgical interventions in patients with tongue-ties are present in the literature, no conclusive suggestions regarding the method of choice can be made. It also remains controversial which tongue-ties need to be surgically removed and which can be left to observation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Oral Surgery and Stomatology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19656020

Citation

Suter, Valérie G A., and Michael M. Bornstein. "Ankyloglossia: Facts and Myths in Diagnosis and Treatment." Journal of Periodontology, vol. 80, no. 8, 2009, pp. 1204-19.
Suter VG, Bornstein MM. Ankyloglossia: facts and myths in diagnosis and treatment. J Periodontol. 2009;80(8):1204-19.
Suter, V. G., & Bornstein, M. M. (2009). Ankyloglossia: facts and myths in diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Periodontology, 80(8), pp. 1204-19. doi:10.1902/jop.2009.090086.
Suter VG, Bornstein MM. Ankyloglossia: Facts and Myths in Diagnosis and Treatment. J Periodontol. 2009;80(8):1204-19. PubMed PMID: 19656020.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Ankyloglossia: facts and myths in diagnosis and treatment. AU - Suter,Valérie G A, AU - Bornstein,Michael M, PY - 2009/8/7/entrez PY - 2009/8/7/pubmed PY - 2009/12/16/medline SP - 1204 EP - 19 JF - Journal of periodontology JO - J. Periodontol. VL - 80 IS - 8 N2 - BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to systematically review the diagnostic criteria, indications, and need for treatment of ankyloglossia (tongue-tie), as well as the various treatment options for patients in different age groups. METHODS: The MEDLINE databases and the Cochrane Library were searched according to well-defined criteria, resulting in 64 included articles. The evidence regarding the classifications of tongue-tie, epidemiologic data, inheritance, breastfeeding problems, impaired tongue mobility, speech disorders, malocclusion, gingival recessions, therapy, and complications due to surgery was analyzed in detail. RESULTS: Different classifications for ankyloglossia have been proposed but not uniformly accepted. Breastfeeding problems in neonates could be associated with a tongue-tie, but not enough controlled trials have been performed to identify an ideal treatment option. In children and adults with ankyloglossia, limitations in tongue mobility are present, but the individual degree of discomfort, as well as the severity of an associated speech problem, are subjective and difficult to categorize. There is no evidence supporting the development of gingival recessions because of ankyloglossia. Frenotomy, frenectomy, and frenuloplasty are the main surgical treatment options to release/remove an ankyloglossia. Because of the limited evidence available, no specific surgical method can be favored. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of an accepted definition and classification of ankyloglossia makes comparisons between studies almost impossible. Because almost no controlled prospective trials for surgical interventions in patients with tongue-ties are present in the literature, no conclusive suggestions regarding the method of choice can be made. It also remains controversial which tongue-ties need to be surgically removed and which can be left to observation. SN - 0022-3492 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19656020/Ankyloglossia:_facts_and_myths_in_diagnosis_and_treatment_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2009.090086 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -